Roles of Probiotic Lactobacilli Inclusion in Helping Piglets Establish Healthy Intestinal Inter-environment for Pathogen Defense
- 515 Downloads
The gastrointestinal tract of pigs is densely populated with microorganisms that closely interact with the host and with ingested feed. Gut microbiota benefits the host by providing nutrients from dietary substrates and modulating the development and function of the digestive and immune systems. An optimized gastrointestinal microbiome is crucial for pigs’ health, and establishment of the microbiome in piglets is especially important for growth and disease resistance. However, the microbiome in the gastrointestinal tract of piglets is immature and easily influenced by the environment. Supplementing the microbiome of piglets with probiotic bacteria such as Lactobacillus could help create an optimized microbiome by improving the abundance and number of lactobacilli and other indigenous probiotic bacteria. Dominant indigenous probiotic bacteria could improve piglets’ growth and immunity through certain cascade signal transduction pathways. The piglet body provides a permissive habitat and nutrients for bacterial colonization and growth. In return, probiotic bacteria produce prebiotics such as short-chain fatty acids and bacteriocins that benefit piglets by enhancing their growth and reducing their risk of enteric infection by pathogens. A comprehensive understanding of the interactions between piglets and members of their gut microbiota will help develop new dietary interventions that can enhance piglets’ growth, protect piglets from enteric diseases caused by pathogenic bacteria, and maximize host feed utilization.
KeywordsLactobacillus Microbiome Piglets Pathogen Defense
This work was sponsored by the fund of Construction of research field in Anhui Academy of Agricultural Sciences of China (No.: 16A0410) and Anhui Modern Agricultural Project for Pig Industry. The funders had no role in the design of the study and collection, analysis, and interpretation of data and in writing of the manuscript.
JY carried out the literature study and drafted the manuscript. KW, CW, and YW critically evaluated the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Ethics Approval and Consent to Participate
Consent for Publication
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
- 10.Hill C, Guarner F, Reid G, Gibson GR, Merenstein DJ, Pot B, Morelli L, Canani RB, Flint HJ, Salminen S, Calder PC, Sanders ME (2014) Expert consensus document. The International Scientific Association for Probiotics and Prebiotics consensus statement on the scope and appropriate use of the term probiotic. Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol 11:506–514CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 12.Sgouras D, Maragkoudakis P, Petraki K, Martinez-Gonzalez B, Eriotou E, Michopoulos S, Kalantzopoulos G, Tsakalidou E, Mentis A (2004) In vitro and in vivo inhibition of Helicobacter pylori by Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota. Appl Environ Microbiol 70:518–526CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 19.Molbak L, Thomsen LE, Jensen TK, Knudsen KEB, Boye M (2007) Increased amount of Bifidobacterium thermacidophilum and Megasphaera elsdenii in the colonic microbiota of pigs fed a swine dysentery preventive diet containing chicory roots and sweet lupine. J Appl Microbiol 103:1853–1867CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 22.Li H, Lei Z, Chen L, Qi Z, Wang W, Qiao J (2016) Lactobacillus acidophilus, alleviates the inflammatory response to enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli, k88 via inhibition of the nf-κb and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathways in piglets. BMC Microbiol 16:273CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 26.Roselli M, Finamore A, Britt MS, Mengheri E (2006) The probiotic bacteria Bifidobacterium animalis MB5 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG protect the intestinal Caco-2 cells from inflammation-associated response induced by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli K88. Br J Nutr 95:1177–1184CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 41.Wlodarska M, Willing B, Keeney KM, Menendez A, Bergstrom KS, Gill N, Russell SL, Vallance BA, Finlay BB (2011) Antibiotic treatment alters the colonic mucus layer and predisposes the host to exacerbated Citrobacter rodentium-induced colitis. Infect Immun 79:1536–1545CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 48.Sharma R, Young C, Neu J (2010) Molecular modulation of intestinal epithelial barrier: contribution of microbiota. J Biomed Biotechnol 4:305879Google Scholar
- 94.Cruchet S, Furnes R, Maruy A, Hebel E, Palacios J, Medina F, Ramirez N, Orsi M, Rondon L, Sdepanian V, Xóchihua L, Ybarra M, Zablah RA (2015) The use of probiotics in pediatric gastroenterology: a review of the literature and recommendations by Latin-American experts. Paediatr Drugs 17:199–216CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 99.Yang J, Xu Y, Qian K, Zhang W, Wu D, Wang C (2016) Effects of chromium-enriched Bacillus subtilis KT260179 supplementation on growth performance, caecal microbiology, tissue chromium level, insulin receptor expression and plasma biochemical profile of mice under heat stress. Br J Nutr 115:774–781CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 100.Hill C, Guarner F, Reid G, Gibson GR, Merenstein DJ, Pot B, Morelli L, Canani RB, Flint HJ, Salminen S, Calder PC, Sanders ME (2014) Expert consensus document. The International Scientific Association for Probiotics and Prebiotics consensus statement on the scope and appropriate use of the term probiotic. Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol 11:506–514CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar