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A Review on Marine N2 Fixation: Mechanism, Evolution of Methodologies, Rates, and Future Concerns

  • P. S. Bhavya
  • Jun-Oh Min
  • Min-Seob Kim
  • Hyo Keun Jang
  • Kwanwoo Kim
  • Jae Joong Kang
  • Jae Hyung Lee
  • Dabin Lee
  • Naeun Jo
  • Myung Joon Kim
  • Yejin Kim
  • Junbeom Lee
  • Chang Hwa Lee
  • Hyeonji Bae
  • Hyeju Yoo
  • Sanghoon Park
  • Mi Sun Yun
  • Sang Heon LeeEmail author
Review
  • 27 Downloads

Abstract

Investigations on marine N2 fixation have gained momentum since 1960s with eventual establishments of relevant methodologies to identify species involved and quantify the rates. The evolution of various methodologies to understand N2 fixation and to estimate its rates were underpinned by the constant efforts of pioneers in the ocean biogeochemical research field. Those efforts succeeded in introducing various methodologies that include experimental (15N2 bubble method and acetylene reduction method), geochemical (N* and P* method), mathematical modelling, and remote sensing techniques. However, the construction of an accurate N budget is still under progress due to inseparable issues associated with each method and difficulties in conducting the experiments onboard on a larger scale. Nevertheless, the contributions by each of the methodologies are significant and helped in forming basic ideas about N2 fixation activities on a global scale. It is not only important to recognize the contributions made by the formation of various methodologies by marine research pioneers, but also vital to summarize what we have achieved in the marine N2 fixation research area so far. Hence, this review is an attempt to brief on the various milestones achieved in research on the N2 fixation mechanism, species involved, evolution of methodologies to estimate N2 fixation rates, species identification, budgets, and future concerns.

Keywords

N2 fixation climate change 15N2 labelling cyanobacteria 

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Notes

Acknowledgements

This research was a part of the project entitled “Construction of Ocean Research Station and their application” and “Im provements of ocean prediction accuracy using numerical modeling and artificial intelligence technology” funded by the Ministry of Oceans and Fisheries, Korea. This research was also partly supported by a grant from the National Institute of Fisheries Science (NIFS) in the Republic of Korea (grant number: R2019062).

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Copyright information

© Korea Institute of Ocean Science & Technology (KIOST) and the Korean Society of Oceanography (KSO) and Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • P. S. Bhavya
    • 1
  • Jun-Oh Min
    • 2
  • Min-Seob Kim
    • 3
  • Hyo Keun Jang
    • 1
  • Kwanwoo Kim
    • 1
  • Jae Joong Kang
    • 1
  • Jae Hyung Lee
    • 1
  • Dabin Lee
    • 1
  • Naeun Jo
    • 1
  • Myung Joon Kim
    • 1
  • Yejin Kim
    • 1
  • Junbeom Lee
    • 1
  • Chang Hwa Lee
    • 1
  • Hyeonji Bae
    • 1
  • Hyeju Yoo
    • 1
  • Sanghoon Park
    • 1
  • Mi Sun Yun
    • 4
  • Sang Heon Lee
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Oceanography, College of Natural SciencesPusan National UniversityBusanKorea
  2. 2.Department of Marine Science and Convergence EngineeringHanyang UniversityAnsanKorea
  3. 3.Fundamental Environment Research Department, Environmental Measurement & Analysis CenterNational Institute of Environmental ResearchIncheonKorea
  4. 4.College of Marine and Environmental SciencesTianjin University of Science and TechnologyTianjinChina

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