Estimation of net ecosystem metabolism of seagrass meadows in the coastal waters of the East Sea and Black Sea using the noninvasive eddy covariance technique
We measured the community-scale metabolism of seagrass meadows in Bulgaria (Byala [BY]) and Korea (Hoopo Bay [HP]) to understand their ecosystem function in coastal waters. A noninvasive in situ eddy covariance technique was applied to estimate net O2 flux in the seagrass meadows. From the high-quality and high-resolution time series O2 data acquired over > 24 h, the O2 flux driven by turbulence was extracted at 15-min intervals. The spectrum analysis of vertical flow velocity and O2 concentration clearly showed well-developed turbulence characteristics in the inertial subrange region. The hourly averaged net O2 fluxes per day ranged from -474 to 326 mmol O2 m-2 d-1 (-19 ± 41 mmol O2 m-2 d-1) at BY and from -74 to 482 mmol O2 m-2 d-1 (31 ± 17 mmol O2 m-2 d-1) at HP. The net O2 production rapidly responded to photosynthetically available radiation (PAR) and showed a good relationship between production and irradiance (P-I curve). The hysteresis pattern of P-I relationships during daytime also suggested increasing heterotrophic respiration in the afternoon. With the flow velocity between 3.30 and 6.70 cm s-1, the community metabolism during daytime and nighttime was significantly increased by 20 times and 5 times, respectively. The local hydrodynamic characteristics may be vital to determining the efficiency of community photosynthesis. The net ecosystem metabolism at BY was estimated to be -17 mmol O2 m-2 d-1, which was assessed as heterotrophy. However, that at HP was 36 mmol O2 m-2 d-1, which suggested an autotrophic state.
Keywordseddy covariance noninvasive measurement oxygen flux carbon cycle eelgrass meadow net ecosystem metabolism
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