Advertisement

Ocean Science Journal

, Volume 50, Issue 3, pp 537–545 | Cite as

Larval distribution pattern of Muraenesox cinereus (Anguilliformes: Muraenesocidae) leptocephali in waters adjacent to Korea

  • Hwan-Sung Ji
  • Jin-Koo Kim
  • Taeg Yun OhEmail author
  • Kwang Ho Choi
  • Jung Hwa Choi
  • Young Il Seo
  • Dong Woo Lee
Article

Abstract

To understand the transport and recruitment processes of the daggertooth pike conger, Muraenesox cinereus, in the marginal seas of East Asia, we investigated the distribution pattern, estimated spawning areas and periods, and recruitment mechanisms of M. cinereus, based on 51 individuals of leptocephali collected from Korean waters during 2010–2014. Back-calculated hatching dates, determined from the daily incremental growth rates of the otoliths, indicated that the spawning period for M. cinereus was during July–September. The size range of M. cinereus leptocephali collected offshore of Jeju Island and southeast of the Korea-Japan intermediate zone was 16.6–20.9 mm TL (age, 18–23 d). We hypothesize that one of the spawning grounds of M. cinereus is located offshore in the East China Sea. In Korean waters, the ages and body lengths of M. cinereus leptocephali increased northward from latitude 31°30′N to 34°40′N, with metamorphosis occurring at latitude 34°40′N. Therefore, we surmised that the hatched preleptocephali of M. cinereus were transported from offshore areas in the East China Sea to Jeju Island and the Korea Strait (KS) by the Kuroshio and Tsushima Warm Current.

Keywords

Muraenesox cinereus leptocephalus distribution otolith spawning period and area recruitment mechanism 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. An YS, Park JM, Kim HJ, Haeck GW (2012) Feeding habitat of daggertooth pike conger Muraenesox cinereus in the coastal water off Goseong, Korea. Korean J Fish Aquat Sci 45:76–81CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Arai T (2014) How have spawning ground investigations of the Japanese eel Anguilla japonica contributed to the stock enhancement? Rev Fish Biol Fisher 24:75–88CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Arai T, Otake T, Tsukamoto K (1997) Drastic changes in otolith microstructure and microchemistry accompanying the onset of metamorphosis in the Japanese eel Anguilla japonica. Mar Ecol-Prog Ser 161:17–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Castle PHJ (1984) Notacantiformes and Anguilliformes: development. In Moser HG, Richard WJ, Lohen DM, Fahay MP, Kendall AW, Richardson SL (eds) Ontogeny and systematics of fishes. special publication NO. 1. American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists, Lawrence, Kansas, pp 102–108Google Scholar
  5. Cha HK, Seo YI, Oh TY, Kim HY, Lee SG, Choi MS (2012) Reproductive ecology of the sharp toothed eel in the southern Korean waters. J Korean Soc Fish Tech 48:217–226CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Chen PW, Tzeng WN (1996) Timing of metamorphosis and estuarine arrival across the dispersal range of the Japanese eel Anguilla japonica. Mar Ecol-Prog Ser 131:87–96CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Hall TA (1999) BioEdit: A user-frendly biological sequence alignment editor and anlaysis program for Windows 95/98/NT. Nucl Acid S 41:95–98Google Scholar
  8. Ishikawa S, Suzuki K, Inagaki T, Watanabe S, Kimura Y, Okamura A, Otake T, Mochioka N, Suzuki Y, Hasumoto H, Oya M, Miller MJ, Lee TW, Fricke H, Tsukamoto K (2001) Spawning time and place of the Japanese eel, Anguilla japonica, in the North Equatorial Current of the western North Pacific Ocean. Fisheries Sci 67:1097–1103CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Ji HS, Kim JK (2010) Molecular and morphological identification of ophichthid leptocephali from the Korea Strait (KS) of Korea. Korean J Ichthyol 22:279–284Google Scholar
  10. Ji HS, Choi JH, Choi KH, Yoon SC, Lee DW, Kim JK (2014) First morphological description and the distribution of Ophisurus macrorhynchos (Anguilliformes: Ophichthidae) leptocephalus collected from southeastern waters of Jeju Island. Korean J Fish Aquat Sci 47:888–894CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Ji HS, Lee HW, Hong BK, Kim JK (2012) Four newly reported ophichthid leptocephali species revealed by mitochondrial 12S rDNA, with implications of their occurrence in Korea. Anim Cells Syst 16:415–424CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Kang YJ, Jeon BS, Zhang CI (1998) A study of the stock management of the sharp-toothed eel, Muraenesox cinereus (Forskål) in Korean waters III. Maturation and spawning. J Korean Soc Fish Res 1:18–24Google Scholar
  13. Kim MJ, Kang YJ, Park CS (1998) A study of the stock management of the sharp-toothed eel, Muraenesox cinereus (Forskål) in Korean waters II. Age and growth. J Korean Soc Fish Res 1:11–17Google Scholar
  14. Kimura M (1980) A simple method for estimating evolutionary rates of base substitutions through comparative studies of nucleotide sequences. J Mol Evol 16:111–120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Kunio S (2008) Biological assessment of ecologically important areas for fish and invertebrates in the Yellow Sea Ecoregion. In YSEPP (ed) Biological assessment report of the Yellow Sea ecoregion. Yellow Sea Ecoregion Planning Programme, Science press, Beijing, pp 123–137Google Scholar
  16. Lee TW, Byun JS (1996) Microstructural growth in otoliths of conger eel (Conger myriaster) leptocephali during the metamorphic stage. Mar Biol 125:259–268CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Lee TW, Lee KS (1989) Daily growth increments and lunar pattern in otolith of the eel, Anguilla japonica, in the freshwater. Bull Korean Fish Soc 22:36–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Leiby MM (1979) Leptocephalus larvae of the eel family Ophichthidae. I. Ophichthus gomesii Castelnau. B Mar Sci 29:329–343Google Scholar
  19. Ling YJ, Iizuka Y, Tzeng WN (2005) Decreased Sr/Ca ratios in the otoliths of two marine eels, Gymnothorax reticularis and Muraenesox cinereus, during metamorphosis. Mar Ecol-Prog Ser 304:201–206CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Ma T, Miller MJ, Aoyama J, Tsukamoto K (2007) Genetic identification of Conger myriaster leptocephali in the East China Sea region. Fisheries Sci 73:989–994CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. McCleave JD (1993) Physical and behavioural controls on the oceanic distribution and migration of leptocephali. J Fish Biol 43:243–273CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Miller MJ (2009) Ecology of Anguilliformes leptocephali: remarkable transparent fish larvae of the ocean surface layer. Acua-Biosci Monogr 2:1–94Google Scholar
  23. Miller MJ, Mochioka N, Otake T, Tsukamoto K (2002) Evidence of a spawning area of Anguilla marmorata in the western North Pacific. Mar Biol 140:809–814CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Miller MJ, Tsukamoto K (2006) Studies on eels and leptocephali in Southeast Asia: a new research frontier. Coastal Mar Sci 30:283–292Google Scholar
  25. Miller MJ, Yamaguchi M, Wouthuyzen S, Aoyama J, Suharti S, Ma T, Yoshinaga T, Minegishi Y, Kawakami T, Tsukamoto K (2013) Ariosoma-type Leptocephali (Congridae: Bathymyrinae) in the Mentawai Island region off western Sumatra, Indonesia. Zool Stud 52:1–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Miller MJ, Yoshinaga T, Aoyama J, Otake T, Mochioka N, Kurogi H, Tsukamoto K (2011) Offshore spawning of Conger myriaster in the western North Pacific: evidence for convergent migration strategies of anguilliform eels in the Atlantic and Pacific. Naturwissenschaften 98:537–543CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. NFRDI (2004) Commercial fishes of the coastal and offshore waters in Korea. National Fisheries Research and Development Institute, Hanguel-Publishing, Busan, 333 pGoogle Scholar
  28. NFRDI (2010) Ecology and fishing ground of major commercial species in the Korean waters. National Fisheries Research and Development Institute, Ye-Moon-Publishing, Busan, 384 pGoogle Scholar
  29. NFRDI (2013) Ecology and fishing ground of major commercial species in the Korean waters. National Fisheries Research and Development Institute, Ye-Moon-Publishing, Busan, 401 pGoogle Scholar
  30. Otake T, Ishii T, Nakahara M, Nakamura R (1997) Changes in otolith strontium: calcium ratios in metamorphosing Conger myriaster leptocephali. Mar Biol 128:565–572CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Park CS, Lee DW, Kang YJ, Kim YS, Zhang CI (1998) A study of the stock management of the sharp-toothed eel, Muraenesox cinereus (Forskål) in Korean waters I. distribution patterns. J Korean Soc Fish Res 1:1–10Google Scholar
  32. Shiao JC, Tzeng WN, Collins A, Iizuka Y (2002) Role of marine larval duration and growth rate of glass eels in determining the distribution of Anguilla reinhardtii and A. australis on Australian eastern coasts. Mar Freshwater Res 53:687–695CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Tabeta O, Mochioka N (1988) Ophichthidae. In Okiyama M (ed) An Atlas of the early stage fishes in Japan. Tokai Univ Press, Tokyo, pp 58–62Google Scholar
  34. Tamura K, Stecher G, Peterson D, Filipski A, Kumar S (2013) MEGA6: Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis (MEGA) software version 6.0. Mol Biol Evol 30:2725–2729CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Tawa A, Aoyama J, Yoshimura T, Wouthuyzen S, Mochioka N (2014) Leptocephalus larvae of two moray eels (Anguilliformes; Muraenidae), Gymnothorax sagmacephalus and Gymnothorax albimarginatus, identified from morphometric and genetic evidence. Ichthyol Res 61:32–41CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Thompson JD, Higgins DG, Gibson TJ (1994) CLUSTAL W: improving the sensitivity of progressive multiple sequence alignment through sequence weighting, positionspecific gap penalties and weight matrix choice. Nucleic Acids Res 22:4673–4680CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Tsukamoto K (2009) Oceanic migration and spawning of anguillid eels. J Fish Biol 74:1833–1852CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Tsukamoto K, Otake T, Mochioka N, Lee TW, Fricke H, Inagaki T, Aoyama J, Ishikawa S, Kimura S, Miller MJ, Hasumoto H, Oya M, Suzuki Y (2003) Seamounts, new moon and eel spawning: the search for the spawning site of the Japanese eel. Environ Biol Fish 66:221–229CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Tzeng WN, Tsai YC (1994) Changes in otolith microchemistry of the Japanese eel Anguilla japonica, during its migration from the ocean to the rivers of Taiwan. J Fish Biol 45:671–684Google Scholar
  40. Umezawa A, Otake T, Hirokawa J, Tsukamoto K, Okiyama M (1991) Development of the eggs and larvae of the pike eel, Muraenesox cinereus. Jpn J Ichthyol 38:35–39Google Scholar
  41. Wang CH, Kuo CH, Mok HK, Lee SC (2002) Molecular phylogeny of elopomorph fishes inferred from mitochondrial 12S ribosomal RNA sequences. Zool Scr 32:231–241CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Wang CH, Tzeng WN (1998) Interpretation of geographic variation in size of American eel Anguilla rostrata elvers on the Atlantic coast of North America using their life history and otolith aging. Mar Ecol-Prog Ser 168:35–43CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Korea Ocean Research & Development Institute (KORDI) and the Korean Society of Oceanography (KSO) and Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hwan-Sung Ji
    • 1
  • Jin-Koo Kim
    • 2
  • Taeg Yun Oh
    • 1
    Email author
  • Kwang Ho Choi
    • 3
  • Jung Hwa Choi
    • 1
  • Young Il Seo
    • 1
  • Dong Woo Lee
    • 1
  1. 1.Fisheries Resources Management DivisionNFRDIBusanKorea
  2. 2.Department of Marine Biology, College of Fisheries SciencesPukyoung National UniversityBusanKorea
  3. 3.Dokdo Fisheries Research Center, East Sea Fisheries Research InstituteNFRDIPohangKorea

Personalised recommendations