Ocean Science Journal

, Volume 48, Issue 2, pp 207–214 | Cite as

Expression of stress response HSP70 gene in Asian paddle crabs, Charybdis japonica, exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals, bisphenol A (BPA) and 4-nonylphenol (NP)



The Asian paddle crab, Charybdis japonica, is a potential bio-indicator reflecting marine sediment toxicity as well as a commercially important species living along coastal areas in Korea. This study investigated its stress response by looking at the heat shock protein (HSP70) gene of C. japonica when the organism is exposed to bisphenol A (BPA) and 4-nonylphenol (NP). We characterized partial sequence of HSP70 as the stressresponse gene of C. japonica. The nucleotide sequence of C. japonica HSP70 is over 90% homologous with the corresponding gene of other crabs. Phylogenetic tree analysis revealed a close relationship between C. japonica HSP70 and HSP70 in other species of lobster and shrimps. HSP70 mRNA transcripts were detected in all the examined tissues of C. japonica, with the highest level in gills, the organ that most frequently came into contact with the external BPA or NP-laden water. As no reference data were available for C. japonica crab exposure, the BPA and NP 24-h LC50 values have not been previously determined. The expression of the C. japonica HSP70 gene to various BPA or NP concentrations during short and longer times was assessed. Gene expression was significantly induced in concentration- and time-dependent manners after BPA or NP exposures. These results support the postulation that crab C. japonica HSP70 could be a potential stress response molecular marker to monitor marine ecosystems.

Key words

Charybdis japonica bisphenol A 4-nonylphenol heat shock protein 70 ecosystem monitoring 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Ahel M, McEvoy J, Giger W (1993) Bioaccumulation of the lipophilic metabolites of nonionic surfactants in fresh-water organisms. Environ Pollut 79:243–248CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Brodsky LI, Drachev AL, Leontovich AM, Feranchuk SI (1993) A novel method of multiple alignment of biopolymer sequences. Biosystems 30:65–79CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Brooke LT, Thursby G (2005) Aquatic life ambient water quality criteria — nonylphenol. US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Office of Water Office of Science and Technology, Washington DC, 88 pGoogle Scholar
  4. Cheng SH, So CH, Chan PK, Cheng CW, Wu RS (2003) Cloning of the HSP70 gene in barnacle, larvae and its expression under hypoxic conditions. Mar Pollut Bull 46:665–671CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Cheng PZ, Liu X, Zhang GF, He JG (2007) Cloning and expression analysis of a HSP70 gene from Pacific abalone (Haliotis discus hannai). Fish Shellfish Immun 22:77–87CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Cui Z, Liu Y, Luan W, Li Q, Wu D, Wang S (2010) Molecular cloning and characterization of a heat shock protein 70 gene in swimming crab (Portunus trituberculatus). Fish Shellfish Immun 28:56–64CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Fei YH, Li XD, Li XY (2011) Organic diagenesis in sediment and its impact on the adsorption of bisphenol A and nonylphenol onto marine sediment. Mar Pollut Bull 63:578–582CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Huang ZR, Sun DR, Chen ZZ, Zhang HH, Wang XH, Wang YZ, Fang HD, Dong YH (2009) Faunal characteristics and distribution pattern of crustaceans in the vicinity of Pearl River estuary. Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao 20:2535–2544Google Scholar
  9. Leignel V, Cibois M, Moreau B, Chenais B (2007) Identification of new subgroup of HSP70 in Bythograeidae (hydrothermal crabs) and Xanthidae. Gene 396:84–92CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Liu Y, Cui Z (2010) Complete mitochondrial genome of the Asian paddle crab Charybdis japonica (Crustacea: Decapoda: Portunidae): gene rearrangement of the marine brachyurans and phylogenetic considerations of the decapods. Mol Biol Rep 37:2559–2569CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Liu J, Yang WJ, Zhu XJ, Karouna-Renier NK, Rao RK (2004) Molecular cloning and expression of two HSP70 genes in the prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii. Cell Stress Chaperon 9:313–323CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Lo WY, Liu KF, Liao IC, Song YL (2004) Cloning and molecular characterization of heat shock cognate 70 from tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon). Cell Stress Chaperon 9:332–343CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Luan W, Li F, Zhang J, Wen R, Li Y, Xiang J (2010) Identification of a novel inducible cytosolic Hsp70 gene in Chinese shrimp Fenneropenaeus chinensis and comparison of its expression with the cognate Hsc70 under different stresses. Cell Stress Chaperon 15:83–93CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Lye CM, Bentley MG, Galloway T (2008) Effects of 4-nonylphenol on the endocrine system of the shore crab, Carcinus maenas. Environ Toxicol 23:309–318CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Maguire RJ (1999) Review of the persistence of nonylphenol and nonylphenol ethoxylates in aquatic environments. Water Qual Res J Can 34:37–78Google Scholar
  16. Mao H, Tan FQ, Wang DH, Zhu JQ, Zhou H, Yang WX (2012) Expression and function analysis of metallothionein in the testis of stone crab Charybdis japonica exposed to cadmium. Aquat Toxicol 15:11–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Martin JW, Davis GE (2001) An updated classification of the recent crustacea. Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County, Los Angeles, 124 pGoogle Scholar
  18. Mayer MP, Bukau B (2005) Hsp70 chaperones: Cellular functions and molecular mechanism. Cell Mol Life Sci 62:670–684CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Micheletti C, Critto A, Marcomini A (2007) Assessment of ecological risk from bioaccumulation of PCDD/Fs and dioxin-like PCBs in a coastal lagoon. Environ Int 33:45–55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Mortazavi S, Bakhtiari AR, Sari AE, Bahramifar N, Rahbarizade F (2012) Phenolic endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in Anzali Wetland, Iran: elevated concentrations of 4-nonylphenol, octhylphenol and bisphenol A. Mar Pollut Bull 64:1067–1073CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Nina NB, Maxim VZ, Nadezhda VD, Avianna FZ, Victor YK, Victor PC (2011) Anthropogenic pollution stimulates oxidative stress in soft tissues of mussel Crenomytilus grayanus (Dunker 1853). Ocean Sci J 46:85–94CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Park K, Bang HW, Park J, Kwak I-S (2009) Ecotoxicological multilevel-evaluation of the effects of fenbendazole exposure to Chironomus riparius larvae. Chemosphere 77:359–367CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Park K, Park J, Kim J, Kwak I-S (2010) Biological and molecular responses of Chironomus riparius (Diptera, Chironomidae) to herbicide 2,4-D (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid). Comp Biochem Phys C 151:439–446Google Scholar
  24. Park K, Kwak I-S (2010) Molecular effects of endocrine-disrupting chemicals on the Chironomus riparius estrogen-related receptor gene. Chemosphere 97:934–941CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Park K, Kwak I-S (2012) Assessment of Potential Biomarkers, Metallothionein and Vitellogenin mRNA Expressions in Various Chemically Exposed Benthic Chironomus riparius Larvae. Ocean Sci J 47:435–444CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Park K, Kim R, Park JJ, Shin HC, Lee JS, Cho HS, Lee YG, Kim J, Kwak IS (2012) Ecotoxicological evaluation of tributyltin toxicity to the equilateral venus clam, Gomphina veneriformis (Bivalvia: Veneridae). Fish Shellfish Immun 32:426–433CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Pan L, Zhang H (2006) Metallothionein, antioxidant enzymes and DNA strand breaks as biomarkers of Cd exposure in a marine crab, Charybdis japonica. Comp Biochem Phys C 144:67–75Google Scholar
  28. Place S, Hofmann G (2005) Constitutive expression of a stressinducible heat shock protein gene, hsp70, in phylogenetically distant Antarctic fish. Polar Biol 28:261–267CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Ravaux J, Toullec JY, Leger N, Lopez P, Gaill F, Shillito B (2007) First hsp70 from two hydrothermal vent shrimps, Mirocaris fortunata and Rimicaris exoculata: characterization and sequence analysis. Gene 386:162–172CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Ricciardi F, Matozzo V, Marin MG (2008) Effects of 4-nonylphenol exposure in mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) and crabs (Carcinus aestuarii) with particular emphasis on vitellogenin induction. Mar Pollut Bull 57:365–372CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Roberts RJ, Agius C, Saliba C, Bossier P, Sung YY (2010) Heat shock proteins (chaperones) in fish and shellfish and their potential role in relation to fish health: A review. J Fish Dis 33:789–801CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Santhi VA, Hairin T, Mustafa AM (2012) Simultaneous determination of organochlorine pesticides and bisphenol A in edible marine biota by GC-MS. Chemosphere 86:1066–1071CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Sun M, Jiang K, Zhang F, Zhang D, Shen A, Jiang M, Shen X, Ma L (2012) Effects of various salinities on Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase, Hsp70 and Hsp90 expression profiles in juvenile mitten crabs, Eriocheir sinensis. Genet Mol Res 11:978–986CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Snyder MJ, Mulder EP (2001) Environmental endocrine disruption in decapod crustacean larvae: hormone titers, cytochrome P450, and stress protein responses to heptachlor exposure. Aquat Toxicol 55:177–190CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Tapiero H, Ba GN, Tew KD (2002) Estrogens and environmental estrogens. Biomed Pharmacother 56:36–44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Wee DP, Ng PKL (1995) Swimming crabs of the genera Charybdis De Haan, 1833 and Thalamita Latreille, 1829 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Brachyura: Portunidae) from Peninsular Malaysia and Singapore. Raffles Bull Zool 1:1–128Google Scholar
  37. Wei X, Huang Y, Wong MH, Giesy JP, Wong CK (2011) Assessment of risk to humans of bisphenol A in marine and freshwater fish from Pearl River Delta, China. Chemosphere 85:122–128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Wu R, Sun Y, Lei LM, Xie ST (2008) Molecular identification and expression of heat shock cognate 70 (HSC70) in the pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. Mol Biol 42:265–274Google Scholar
  39. Zhang XY, Zhang MZ, Zheng CJ, Liu J, Hu HJ (2009) Identification of two hsp90 genes from the marine crab, Portunus trituberculatus and their specific expression profiles under different environmental conditions. Comp Biochem Phys C 150:465–473Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Korea Ocean Research & Development Institute (KORDI) and the Korean Society of Oceanography (KSO) and Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Fisheries and Ocean ScienceChonnam National UniversityYeosuKorea

Personalised recommendations