Anthropogenic pollution stimulates oxidative stress in soft tissues of mussel Crenomytilus grayanus (Dunker1853)
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The digestive gland and gills of the mussel Crenomytilus grayanus extracted from three locations — (i) sampled from a clean and (ii) polluted site and (iii) transplanted from the nonpolluted to polluted site - were analysed for antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione reductase), total oxyradical scavenging capacity and levels of lipid peroxidation products (malondialdehyde, conjugated dienes and lipofuscin). Perturbation of redox status was found in both digestive gland and gill tissues of mussels living in the polluted area. As the activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase were 1.2–3 times higher, the total oxyradical scavenging capacity was lower by 20–35% and the levels of lipid peroxidation products were 2–7 times higher compared to mussels from the reference site. In transplanted mussels, the lipid peroxidation process in both tissues was significantly stimulated (the level of conjugated dienes was increased 1.7–2.5-fold; malondialdehyde and lipofuscin contents were increased 3.5–5-fold) and the total oxyradical scavenging capacity fell by 50–70%. In addition, the transplantation generally resulted in transient and variable responses of antioxidant enzymes for both tissues. Complex response-behaviour of the antioxidant enzymes strongly points to the necessity of employing a combined approach that takes into account activities of antioxidant enzymes and the total oxyradical scavenging capacity, as well as measurement of oxidative damage (e.g., lipid peroxidation) to evaluate the physiological health of molluscs.
Key wordsantioxidant system oxidative stress heavy metal pollution molluscs
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