Characterization of culturable gut bacterial isolates from wild population of melon fruit fly (Bactrocera cucurbitae) and assessing their attractancy potential for sustainable pest management
- 3 Downloads
The melon fruit fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) poses a serious threat to cucurbit production worldwide. Its management by conventional means remains difficult due to their proclivity to oviposite in fruit. In view of the increasing environmental safety concerns, use of biocontrol agents for sustainable pest control holds immense potential. Given this, the study intended to identify the cultivable bacteria inhabiting the intestinal tract of adult male and female melon fruit flies (Bactrocera cucurbitae) separately from field-collected population, and to assess the attractiveness of these bacteria to the fly. All selected bacterial isolates were identified and characterized based on morphological, biochemical and 16S rRNA gene sequence. Bacterial community identified in the gut of B. cucurbitae predominantly composed of Enterobacteriaceae followed by Staphylococcaceae, Enterococcaceae, Bacillaceae and Brucellaceae. Further, the laboratory bioassay was employed to examine the attractiveness of the supernatant as well as whole culture broth of 10 different species of bacteria to B. cucurbitae adults. Among these, Klebsiella oxytoca and Citrobacter freundii followed by Bacillus cereus were found highly attractive to fruit flies. The field experiment using supernatant of two bacteria demonstrated that the K. oxytoca was significantly more attractive to female flies followed by C. freundii.
KeywordsAttractancy Bacterocera cucurbitae Enterobacteriaceae Klebsiella Management
The first author acknowledges the financial support by University Grants Commission, Government of India [PDFWM-2013-14-GE-UTT-16855(SA-II)] and Director, ICAR-IARI, New Delhi for providing facilities. Mala Mishra wishes to express her gratitude to the technical staff Mr. Ram Singh and Mr. Parmeshwer Ram for their technical assistance during the study.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors and funding agency declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- Behar, A., Ben-Yosef, M., Lauzon, C. R., Yuval, B., & Jurkevich, E. (2009). Structure and function of the bacterial community associated with the Mediterranean fruit fly. In K. Bourtzis & T. Miller (Eds.), Insect symbiosis (pp. 251–271). Boca Raton: CRC Press.Google Scholar
- Crotti, E., Rizzi, A., Chouaia, B., Ricci, I., Favia, G., Alma, A., Sacchi, L., Bourtzis, K., Mandrioli, M., Cherif, A., Bandi, C., & Daffonchio, D. (2010). Acetic acid bacteria, newly emerging symbionts of insects. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 76, 6963–6970.CrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Drew, R. A. I., & Lloyd, A. C. (1991). Bacteria in the life cycle of tephritid fruit flies. In: Microbial mediation of plant- herbivore interactions. (Ed. by Barbosa P, Krischik VA and Jones CG) Wiley, New York. pp. 441–465.Google Scholar
- Drew, R. A. I., & Raghu, S. (2002). The fruit fly fauna (Diptera: Tephritidae: Dacinae) of the rainforest habitat of the Western Ghats, India. Raffels Bulletin of Zoology, 50(2), 327–352.Google Scholar
- Gujjar, N. R., Govindan, S., Verghese, A., Subramaniam, S., & More, R. (2017). Diversity of the cultivable gut bacterial communities associated with the fruit flies Bactrocera dorsalis and Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae). Phytoparasitica, 45, 453–460. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12600-017-0604-z.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Holt, J. G., Krieg, N. R., Sneath, P. H. A., Staley, J. T., & Williams, S. T. (2000). Bergey's manual of determinative bacteriology (pp. 175–533). New York: LIPPNCOTT Williams and Wilkins.Google Scholar
- Howard, D. J. (1989). Thesymbionts of Rhagoletis, In A. S. Robinson and G. Hooper (eds.) Fruit Flies, Their Biology, Natural Enemies and Control, Elsevier, New York. 3 (A) pp. 121–129.Google Scholar
- Naaz, N., Choudhary, J. S., Prabhakar, C. S., Moanaro, & Maurya, S. (2016). Identification and evaluation of cultivable gut bacteria associated with peach fruit fly, Bactrocera zonata (Diptera: Tephritidae). Phytoparasitica, 44, 165–176. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12600-016-0518-1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Narit, T., & Anuchit, C. (2011). Attraction of Bactrocera cucurbitae and B. papaya (Diptera: Tephritidae) to the odor of the bacterium Enterobacter cloacae. Philippine Agricultural Scientist, 94, 1–6.Google Scholar
- Robacker, D. C. (2007). Chemical ecology of bacteria relationships with fruit flies. Integrated protection of olive crops. IOBC/WPRS Bulletin, 30, 9–22.Google Scholar
- Sacchetti, P. S., Landini, A., Granchietti, A., Camera, A., Rosi, M. C., & Belcari, A. (2007). Attractiveness to the olive fly of Pseudomonas putida isolated from the foregut of Bactrocera oleae. IOBC/WPRS Bull., 30, 37–42.Google Scholar
- Sapkota, R., Dahal, K. C., & Thapa, R. B. (2010). Damage assessment and management of cucurbit fruit files in spring-summer squash. Journal of Entomology and Nematology, 2(1), 007–012.Google Scholar
- Sharma, R., & Sohal, S. K. (2016). Oviposition response of melon fruit fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) to different phenolic compounds. Journal of Biopesticides, 9(1), 46–51.Google Scholar
- Shi, Z., Wang, L., & Zhang, H. (2012). Low diversity bacterial community and the trapping activity of metabolites from cultivable bacteria species in the female reproductive system of the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel (Diptera: Tephritidae). International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 13, 6266–6278.CrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Sood, P., Prabhakar, C. S., & Mehta, P. K. (2010). Eco-friendly management of fruit flies through their gut bacteria. Journal of Insect Science, 23(3), 275–283.Google Scholar
- Thaochan, N., Drew, R. A. I., Hughes, J. M., Vijaysegaran, S., & Chinajariyawong, A. (2010). Alimentary tract bacteria isolated and identified with API- 20E and molecular cloning techniques from Australian tropical fruit flies, Bactrocera cacuminata and B. tryoni. Journal of Insect Science, 10, 131.CrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar