, 37:415 | Cite as

Integrated management of Helicoverpa armigera in chickpea in rainfed areas of Punjab, Pakistan

  • Waqas WakilEmail author
  • Muhammad Ashfaq
  • M. U. Ghazanfar
  • Muhammad Afzal
  • Tahira Riasat


The pod borer Helicoverpa armigera Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is an important insect pest of chickpea and several other crops in Asia, Africa and Australia. The present studies were carried out on integration of various practices for the management of H. armigera in Punjab, Pakistan, during 2004-05. Chickpea variety ‘CM-2000’ was selected for evaluating various strategies such as cultural, mechanical, biological, microbial, and chemical control, individually and in various possible combinations, for the management of H. armigera at three different locations. Integration of weeding, hand picking and indoxacarb (an oxadiazine insecticide) proved to be the most effective in reducing the larval population and pod infestation and resulted in the maximum grain yield. The larval population of the combined effect of these practices was not significantly different from hand picking + indoxacarb, weeding + indoxacarb, and indoxacarb alone. Hand picking in combination with Bacillus thuringiensis, and weeding + hand picking, also controlled the larval population significantly, but was inferior to the above treatments. The release of Trichogramma chilonis Ishii (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) did not control H. armigera. It was concluded on the basis of the cost — benefit ratio that hand picking was the most cost-effective method for the control of H. armigera, while the maximum increase in grain yield was obtained in plots with weeding, hand picking, and indoxacarb.


Bacillus thuringiensis Chickpea pod borer Handpicking Indoxacarb Trichogramma chilonis Weeding 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science & Business Media BV 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Waqas Wakil
    • 1
    Email author
  • Muhammad Ashfaq
    • 1
  • M. U. Ghazanfar
    • 2
  • Muhammad Afzal
    • 1
  • Tahira Riasat
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Agricultural EntomologyUniversity of AgricultureFaisalabadPakistan
  2. 2.Department of Plant PathologyUniversity of AgricultureFaisalabadPakistan

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