Ladybird beetles were collected from unmanaged apple trees of Kashmir Himalayas across five selected sites to assess species composition and seasonal distribution. Altogether 12 species belonging to 4 subfamilies and 11 genera were found. Varying among sites, species richness was recorded lowest (S = 8) at Shopian and Kupwara and highest (S = 12) at Srinagar. Simmondsius pakistanensis (Ahmad and Ghani, 1996) reported here marks the first verified record of the species from India. Priscibrumus uropygialis (Mulsant, 1853) was found to be the dominant species throughout the season whilst Adalia tetraspilota (Hope, 1831) was rarer in occurrence. Understanding species composition and seasonal distribution of natural enemies in unmanaged apple trees is crucial for pest management programs for apple pests. The baseline information provided here will help in further similar studies in the region and formulation of effective conservational strategies.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT for USA
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.
Agarwala, B.K., and A.X. Ghosh. 1988. Prey records of aphidophagous Coccinellidae in India A review and bibliography. Tropical Pest Management 34 (1): 1–14.
Ahmad, K.F., M.I. Baig, and S.G. Mustafa. 1999. Spatial distribution and phenology of adult Chilocorus infernalis (Mulsant) (Coccinellidae: Coleoptera on apple trees in Kashmir-Pakistan. Sarhad Journal of Agriculture 15: 343–346.
Ahmad, P. 2004. Predaceous Coccinellids in India: Predator-Prey Catalogue (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). Oriental Insects 38 (1): 27–61.
Ahmad, R., and M.A. Ghani. 1996. A new genus and species of Chilocorini (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) from Pakistan. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London (B) 1–2: 9–10.
Akbar, S.A., M.A. Dar, G. Mahendiran, and A.A. Wachkoo. 2018. The first record of pear psylla Cacopsylla bidens (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) from India along with notes on seasonal occurrence and some elements of its biology. Oriental Insects 52 (1): 101–111.
Akbar, S.A., S.U. Nabi, S. Mansoor, and K.A. Khan. 2019. Morpho-molecular identification and a new host report of Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) from the Kashmir valley (India). International Journal of Tropical Insect Science. https://doi.org/10.1007/s42690-019-00083-w.
Aktar, M.W., D. Sengupta, and A. Chowdhury. 2009. Impact of pesticides use in agriculture: their benefits and hazards. Interdisciplinary Toxicology 2 (1): 1–12.
Ashfaque, M., F. Ullah, M.A. Rafi, and F. Naz. 2015. Taxonomic study of subfamily Scymninae (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) with one new record from Gilgit-Baltistan. Pakistan. Turkish Journal of Zoology 39 (6): 1034–1040.
Atreya, K., B.K. Sitaula, and R.M. Bajracharya. 2012. Pesticide use in agriculture: The philosophy, complexities and opportunities. Scientific Research and Essays 7 (25): 2168–2173.
Baba, S.H., M.H. Wani, B.A. Zargar, S.A. Wani, and S.S. Kubrevi. 2012. Pesticide delivery system in apple growing belt of Kashmir Valley. Agricultural Economics Research Review 25: 435–444.
Ballal, C., S.A. Akbar, K. Yamada, A.A. Wachkoo, and R. Varshney. 2018. Annotated catalogue of the flower bugs from India (Heteroptera: Anthocoridae, Lasiochilidae). Acta Entomologica Musei Nationalis Pragae 58 (1): 207–226.
Belicek, J. 1976. Coccinellidae of western Canada and Alaska with analyses of the transmontane zoogeographic relationships between the fauna of British Columbia and Alberta (Insecta: Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). Quaestiones Entomologicae 12: 283–409.
Bhagat, K.C., and M.A. Masoodi. 1988. Natural enemies of mealy plum aphid, Hyalopterus arundinis Fabricius (Aphididae, Homoptera) in Kashmir. Journal of Advanced Zoology 9 (2): 145–147.
Bhat, A.R., M.A. Wani, and A.R. Kirmani. 2010a. Brain cancer and pesticide relationship in orchard farmers of Kashmir. Indian Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine 14 (3): 78–86.
Bhat, A.R., M.A. Wani, A.R. Kirmani, and T.H. Raina. 2010b. Pesticides and brain cancer linked in orchard farmers of Kashmir. Indian Journal of Medical and Paediatric Oncology 31 (4): 110–120.
Bind, O., and R.B. Bind. 1993. Records of aphid natural enemies complex of Uttar-Pradesh. 2. The coccinnellids. Journal of Advanced Zoology 14 (2): 96–99.
Birthal, P.S., and O.P. Sharma. 2004. Integrated Pest Management in Indian Agriculture. Proceedings 11. India: National Centre for Agricultural Economics and Policy Research, New Delhi.
Caltagirone, L.E., and R.L. Doutt. 1989. The history of the vedalia beetle importation to California and its impact on the development of biological control. Annual Review of Entomology 34: 1–16.
Canepari, C. 1997. Coccinellidae (Coleoptera) from the Nepal Himalayas. Stuttgarter Beiträgezur Naturkunde (A) 565: 1–65.
Chakrabarti, S., N. Debnath, and D. Ghosh. 1995. Bioecology of Harmonia eucharis (Mulsant) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). An aphidophagous predator in Western Himalayas. Entomon 20 (3–4): 191–196.
Dar, M.A., S.A. Akbar, and Z.H. Khan. 2018. Acronicta rumicis (Linnaeus, 1758), Emerging Pest of Apple Plantation in Kashmir Valley. National Academy Science Letters. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40009-018-0730-2.
DeBach, P., and D. Rosen. 1991. Biological Control by Natural Enemies. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Frazer, B.D. 1988. Coccinellidae. In Aphids—their Biology, Natural Enemies and Control, ed. A.K. Minks and P. Harrewijn, 231–248. New York: Elsevier.
Ganai, M.A., K.L. Kumawat, M.A. Dar, and S.A. Akbar. 2018. Observations on Blackheaded Fireworm Rhopobota naevana (Hubner, 1817) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) from Apple orchards of Kashmir Himalayas. Caucasian Entomological Bulletin 14 (1): 77–82.
Gordon, R.D. 1985. The Coccinellidae (Coleoptera) of America north of Mexico. Journal of the New York Entomological Society 93: 1–912.
Greathead, D.J. 1986. Parasitoids in classical biological control. In Insect Parasitoids, ed. J. Waage and D.J. Greathead, 289–317. New York: Academic Press.
Gupta, P.R. 2004. Integrated Pest Management in Temperate Fruits. In Recent trends in Horticulture in the Himalayas, eds. K.K. Jindal and R.C. Sharma, 280–292. New Delhi: Indus Publishing Company.
Hagen, K.S. 1974. The significance of predaceous Coccinellidae in biological and integrated control of insects. Entomophaga (Memoirs Hors Serie) 7: 25–44.
Hayat, A., and M.R. Khan. 2014. Biodiversity and species composition of lady bird beetles (Coccinellidae: Coleoptera) from Mirpur Division of Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan. Sarhad Journal of Agriculture 30 (3): 341–350.
Hodek, I. 1973. Biology of Coccinellidae. Prague: Academia Publishing House of the Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences.
Hodek, I. 1970. Coccinellids and the Modern Pest Management. BioScience 20: 543–552.
Hodek, I., and A. Honek. 1996. Ecology of Coccinellidae. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, Boston.
Hodek, I., H.F. van Emden, and A. Honek. 2012. Ecology and behaviour of the ladybird beetles (Coccinellidae). Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell.
Inayatullah, M., A. Hayat, and M.A. Rafi. 2005. Species composition, distribution and seasonal occurrence of Coccinellidae (Coleoptera) in District Poonch, Azad Kashmir with new records. Sarhad Journal of Agriculture 21 (1): 97–100.
Irshad, M. 2001. Distribution, hosts, ecology and biotic potentials of coccinellids of Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences 4 (10): 1259–1263.
Irshad, M. 2003. Parasitoids, Predators and Pathogens of Agricultural and Forest Pests of Pakistan. National IPM, National Agricultural Research Centre, Islamabad. Pakistan: Perfect Printers, Blue Area, Islamabad.
Irshad, M., and E. Haq. 2010. Research Work on Biological Control of Pests in Pakistan. National Agricultural Research Centre, Islamabad. Pakistan: Gul Awan Printers, Islamabad.
Javaid, M. 2019. Grasslands of North Western Kashmir Himalaya an Ecological Appraisal. Dehradun: M/S Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh Press.
Joshi, S., P. Mohanraj, R.J. Rabindra, and N.S. Rao. 2003. Production and use of Coccinellid Predators. Technical Bulletin No. 32. India: Project Directorate of Biological Control, Bangalore.
Kapur, A.P. 1973. The Coccinellidae (Coleoptera) of the Italian expeditions to the Karakoram and Hindukush. Records of Zoological Survey of India 67: 373–378.
Khan, A.A., and F.A. Zaki. 2007. Predation rates of Coccinella septempunctata Linnaeus and Chilocorus infernalis Mulsant on aphids. Asian Journal of Bio Science 2: 53–55.
Khan, A.A., F.A. Zaki, Z.H. Khan, and R.A. Mir. 2009. Biodiversity of predaceous ladybird beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) in Kashmir. Journal of Biological Control 23 (1): 43–47.
Khan, I., S. Din, S.K. Khalil, and M.A. Rafi. 2007. Survey of predatory Coccinellids (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) in the Chitral District. Pakistan. Journal of Insect Science 7: 7.
Lawrence, J.F., and A.F. Newton, Jr. 1995. Families and subfamilies of Coleoptera (with selected genera, notes, references and data on family—group names). In Biology, Phylogeny, and Classification of Coleoptera. Papers Celebrating the 80th Birthday of Roy A. Crowson, eds. J. Pakaluk and S.A. Slipinski, pp. 775–1006. Warszawa: Muzeum i Instytut Zoologii PAN.
Lin, M.Y., M.A. Dar, and S.A. Akbar. 2017. Taxonomy and distribution of Glenea beesoni Heller, 1926 (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae: Lamiinae: Saperdini) from Indian Himalayas. Oriental Insects. Published online: 13 November 2017. https://doi.org/10.1080/00305316.2017.1397565.
Mahendiran, G., S.A. Akbar, and M.A. Dar. 2018. The invasive aphid Pterochloroides persicae (Cholodkovsky, 1899) (Hemiptera, Aphidoidea: Lachninae) recorded on important fruit trees in Kashmir Valley, India. Journal of Threatened Taxa 10 (5): 11672–11678. https://doi.org/10.11609/jott.29184.108.40.20672-11678.
Mahendiran, G., M.A. Dar, and S.A. Akbar. 2019. Altica himalayensis (Chen), an emerging pest of temperate horticultural crops from Kashmir valley. Halteres 10: 7–18. https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.2633828.
Mangan, A.M., L. Pejchar, and S.J. Werner. 2017. Bird use of organic apple orchards: Frugivory, pest control and implications for production. PLoS ONE 12 (9): e0183405.
Maqbool, A., A.A. Akbar, and A.A. Wachkoo. 2018. First record of the genus Ficobracon (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) from India, with description of new species. Zootaxa 4379 (3): 421–428.
Masoodi, M.A., A.R. Trali, A.M. Bhat, R.K. Tiku, and R.K. Nehru. 1989. Establishment of Encarsia (= Prospaltella) perniciosi, a specific parasite of San Jose scale, on apple in Kashmir. Entomophaga 34 (1): 39–43.
Newsom, L.D. 1974. Predator insecticide relationships. Entomophaga (Memoirs Hors Serie) 7: 13–23.
Obrycki, J.J., and T.J. Kring. 1998. Predaceous Coccinellidae in biological control. Annual Review of Entomology 43: 295–321.
Omkar, and A. Parvez. 2003. Ecology and biocontrol potential of a scale predator, Chilocorus nigritus. Biocontrol Science and Technology 13: 379–390.
Pal, T.K., and J.F. Lawrence. 1986. A new genus and subfamily of mycophagous Bothrideridae (Coleoptera: Cucujoidea) from the Indo—Australian Region, with notes on related families. Journal of the Australian Entomological Society 25: 185–210.
Poorani, J. 2002. An annotated checklist of the Coccinellidae (Coleoptera) (excluding Epilachninae) of the Indian subregion. Oriental Insects 36: 307–383.
Poorani, J. 2012. An annotated checklist of the Coccinellidae (Coleoptera) of the Indian subregion. Working paper. ResearchGate. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/301621296_Updated_checklist_of_Indian_Coccinellidae. Accessed 05 April 2018.
Poorani, J., and R. Thangjam. 2019. New additions to Indian fauna of Coccinellidae (Coleoptera). Oriental Insects. https://doi.org/10.1080/00305316.2018.1550448.
Rafi, A.M., M. Irshad, and M. Inaytullah. 2005. Predatory Ladybird beetles of Pakistan. Pakistan: Rohani Art Press, Blue Area, Islamabad.
Rather, N.A., P.A. Lone, A.A. Reshi, and M.M. Mir. 2013. An analytical study on production and export of fresh and dry fruits in Jammu and Kashmir. International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications 3 (2): 1–7.
Rathod, A.L., and R.K. Garg. 2017. Chlorpyrifos poisoning and its implications in human fatal cases: A forensic perspective with reference to Indian scenario. Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine 47: 29–34.
Rekha, B.S., S. Raguraman, M. Kandibane, and M. Swamiappan. 2007. Diversity of predatory Coccinellids in fruit crops in Madurai and Periyakulam districts of southern Tamil Nadu. The Madras Agricultural Journal 94: 69–75.
Report. 2011. Annual Report on Economic Survey. India: Directorate of Economics and Statistical Planing Government of Jammu and Kashmir.
Shah, M.A., and A.A. Khan. 2014. Assessment of coccinellid biodiversity under pesticide pressure in horticulture ecosystems. Indian Journal of Entomology 76 (2): 107–116.
Shantibala, K., and T.K. Singh. 1991. Studies on the vertical distribution of aphidophagous coccinellids (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) of Manipur and Nagaland. Journal of Aphidology 5: 39–43.
Sharma, P.L., U. Chauhan, and K.C. Sharma. 2015. Studies on the diversity of predatory coccinellid beetles (Coleoptera) in different agro-climatic zones of Himachal Pradesh. The Bioscan 10 (3): 981–985.
Singh, K.C., and T.K. Singh. 1985. Aphidophagous coccinellids of north eastern-India-Manipur-1. Entomon 10 (4): 291–295.
Singh, K.C., and T.K. Singh. 1991. Aphidophagous coccinellids of north eastern India-Mizoram-II. Journal of Advanced Zoology 12 (2): 131–134.
Singh, S.S., N.N. Gupta, and M.K. Rai. 2010. Pest management in temperate fruits: opportunities and challenges. Progressive Horticulture 42 (1): 76–83.
Ślipiński, A. 2007. Australian ladybird beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae): their biology and classification. Canberra: Australian Biological Resources Study Press.
Thakur, J.N., U.S. Rawat, and A.D. Pawar. 1989. Investigations on the occurrence of natural enemies of San Jose scale, Quadraspidiotus perniciosus Comstock (Hemiptera: Coccidae) in Jammu and Kashmir and Himachal Pradesh. Entomon 14 (12): 143–146.
Vandenberg, N.J. 2002. Coccinellidae Latreille. In American beetles. Polyphaga: Scarabaeoidea through Curculionoidea, vol. 2, ed. R.H. Arnett and M.C. Thomas, 1807–1861. Boca Raton: CRC Press.
Wachkoo, A.A., H. Kurahashi, N. Khurshid, and S.A. Akbar. 2018a. First record of Dryomyza pakistana Kurahashi, 1989 (Diptera: Dryomyzidae) from India. Oriental Insects 52 (1): 96–100. https://doi.org/10.1080/00305316.2017.1377644.
Wachkoo, A.A., N. Khurshid, A. Maqbool, and S.A. Akbar. 2018b. Two first Acalyptrate fly (Diptera: Acalyptratae) records from India. Ukrainska Entomofaunistyka 9 (1): 33–36.
The authors are sincerely thankful to Dr. J. Poorani (National Bureau of Agriculturally Important Insects (ICAR)) for helping with the identification and confirmation of the new faunal record to India. The third author would also like to thank Department of Science and Technology (DST), Government of India, New Delhi for research encouragement and financial assistance rendered via; N-PDF Fellowship program: File No: PDF/2015/000866 and director CITH for facilities made available.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
About this article
Cite this article
Maqbool, A., Rather, S.U., Akbar, S.A. et al. Preliminary Survey of Ladybird Beetle Composition (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) in Unmanaged Apple Orchard Ecosystems of Kashmir Himalayas. Proc Zool Soc (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12595-020-00322-w
- Apple ecosystems