Proceedings of the Zoological Society

, Volume 71, Issue 1, pp 83–87 | Cite as

Effect of Some Honeybee Diseases on Seasonal Mortality of Apis mellifera intermissa in Algeria Apiaries

  • Noureddine AdjlaneEmail author
  • Nizar Haddad
Research Article


With a view to identify the pathogens and to establish the role of these pathogens in regulation of the density of honey bee population occurring in the apiaries of the area concerned samples of honeybee were collected from the beekeepers in some parts of central Algeria It is revealed that Nosema sp., Varroa destrutor, Peanibacillus larvae are associated with the disease manifestation in honey bees. The presence of Nosema sp., Varroa destrutor, Peanibacillus larvae was analyzed using standard OIE methods. Spores of Paenibacillus larvae were detected in 56.6 % in winter 52.32 % in spring. 29.33 % in autumn and 11.25 % in summer. Nosema infestation was recorded in 47.91 % bee individuals during spring. Varroa infestation rate was maximum 12.57 % in summer and lowest 3.44 % in spring. Analysis of data indicates that Boumerdes and Tipaza, diseases induced mortality exceeds 10 % in honeybee. There exists a significant correlation between Nosema disease and mortalities in honeybees. Seasons play significant role, irrespective of pathogens, in disease manifestation.


Honey bee Diseases Mortality Apiary Algeria 


  1. Adjlane, N., S.E. Doumandji, and N. Haddad. 2012. Situation de l’apiculture en Algérie: Facteurs menaçant la survie des colonies d’abeilles locales Apis mellifera intermissa. Cahiers Agriculture 21: 235–241. doi: 10.1684/agr.2012.0566.Google Scholar
  2. Adjlane, N., K. Ameur Lain, N. Lecksir, N. Gharabi, and N. Haddad. 2013. Detection of paenibacillus larvae spores in honey samples from beekeepers of the central region of Algeria. Journal of Microbiology, Biotechnology and Food Sciences 3(1): 81–83.Google Scholar
  3. Ball, L., and B.V. Bailey. 1991. Honey bee pathology, 125. London: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  4. Barbancon, J.M., and M. L’Hostis. 2007. Pathologie. Nosema qui es-tu ? La Santé de l’Abeille 3: 139–143.Google Scholar
  5. Branco, M.R., N.A.C. Kidd, and R.S. Pickard. 1999. Development of Varroa jacobsoni in colonies of Apis mellifera iberica and Mediterranean climate. Apidologie 30: 491–503.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Cantwell, G.E. 1970. Standard methods for counting Nosema spores. American Bee journal 110: 222–223.Google Scholar
  7. Copley, T.-R., and S.H. Jabaji. 2012. Honeybee glands as possible infection reservoirs of Nosema ceranae and Nosema apis in naturally infected forager bees. Journal of Applied Microbiology 112(1): 1–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Cox-Foster, D.L., S. Conlan, E.C. Holmes, G. Palacios, J.D. Evans, and N.A. Moran. 2007. A metagenomic survey of microbes in honey bee colony collapse disorder. Science 318: 283–287.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Dainat, B., J.D. Evans, Y.P. Chen, L. Gauthier, and P. Neumann. 2012. Dead or alive: Deformed wing virus and Varroa destructor reduce the life span of winter honeybees. Applied Environnemental Microbiology 78: 981–987. doi: 10.1128/AEM.06537-11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Dietemann, V., F. Nazzi, S.J. Martin, D. Anderson, B. Locke, K.S. Delaplane, Q. Wauquiez, C. Tannahill, E. Frey, B. Ziegelmann, P. Rosenkranz, and J.D. Ellis. 2013. Standard methods for Varroa research. Journal of Apicultural Research. 52: 1–49. doi: 10.3896/IBRA. Scholar
  11. Dyess, E.G., and C.A. Wilson. 1978. A study of the seasonal variations of Nosema apis Zander of honey bee in Mississippi. American Bee Journal 118: 33–35.Google Scholar
  12. Fries, I. 1993. Nosema apis: A parasite in the honey bee colony. Bee World 74: 5–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Guzman-Novoa, E., L. Eccles, Y. Calvete, J. Mcgowen, P.G. Kelly, and A. Corra-Benitez. 2010. Varroa destructor is the main culprit for the death and reduced populations of overwintered honey bee (Apis mellifera) colonies in Ontario, Canada. Apidologie 41: 443–450.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Haynes, W.C. 1972. The catalase test, an aid in the identification of Bacillus larvae. American Bee Journal 112: 130–131.Google Scholar
  15. Haddad, N., A. Shammout, and A. Al-Nsour. 2007. The economic value of honeybees for crop pollinisation in Jordan. In 40th Apimondia international apicultural congresse, Melbourne, p. 115.Google Scholar
  16. Hansen, H., and C.J. Brodsgaard. 1999. American foulbrood: A review of its biology, diagnosis and control. Bee World 80: 5–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Higes, M., R. Matin-Hernandez, C. Botias, E. Garrido-Bailon, A.V. Gonzales-Porto, and L. Barrios. 2008. How natural infection by Nosema ceranae causes honeybee colony collapse. Environnemental Microbiology 10: 2659–2669.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Kraus, B., and R.E. Page. 1995. Population growth of Varroa jacobsoni Oud in Mediterranean climates of California. Apidologie 26: 149–157.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Lindrstrom, A., S. Korpela, and I. Fries. 2008. Horizontal transmission of Paenibacillus larvae spores between honey bee (Apis mellifera) colonies through robbing. Apidologie 39: 1–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Martin-Hernandez, R., A. Meanna, L. Priero, M. Salvador, E. Garrido-Bailon, and H. Higes. 2007. Outcome of colonization of Apis mellifera by Nosema ceranae. Applied and Environnemental Microbiology 73: 6331–6338.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Moeller, F.E. 1978. Nosema disease—its control in honey bee colonies. US Department of Agricultural Technical Bulletin 1569: 22–32.Google Scholar
  22. Mussen, E.C., B. Furgala, and R.A. Hyser. 1975. Enzootic levels of Nosema disease in the continental United States. American Bee Journal 115: 48–50.Google Scholar
  23. Oie, A.H.S. 2005. Manual of diagnostic tests and vaccines for terrestrial animals, 1343. Paris: World Organisation Animal Health.Google Scholar
  24. Soesensen, P.E. 2009. Breeding Nosema—free colonies in Denmark. In Proceedings Apimondia 41st congress, Montpellier, p. 132.Google Scholar
  25. Shimanuki, H., and D.A. Knox. 2000. Diagnosis of honey bee diseases. Agriculture handbook no. AH690. US Department of Agriculture, Beltsville.Google Scholar
  26. Ribière, M, P. Lallemand, A.L. Iscache, F. Schurr, O. Cele, P. Blachard, V. Olivier, and J.P. Faucon. 2006 Infectious chronic bee paralysis virus (CBPV) excretion in honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) faeces: A way of spread. In Proceeding second European conference, ed. V. Vesley, and D. Titera, pp. 21–22. Apidology, EurBee, Prague.Google Scholar
  27. Shammout, S., N. Haddad, and O. Abuobeid. 2014. The monetary value of ecosystem services provided by insects (a case study for selected crops in Jordan). Jordan Journal of Agricultural Sciences 10: 02–07.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Swart, D.J. 2003. The occurrence of Nosema apis (Zander), Acarapis woodi (Rennie) and the cape problem bee in the summer rainfall region of South Africa. Master of Science. and Euden Gradum Rhodes University, 50p.Google Scholar
  29. VanEngelsdorp, D., J.D. Evans, C. Saegerman, C. Mullin, E. Haubruge, B.K. Nguyen, M. Frazier, J. Frazier, D. Cox-Foster, Y. Chen, R. Underwood, D.R. Tarpy, and J.S. Pettis. 2009. Colony collapse disorder: A descriptive study. PLoS One 4(8): e6481.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  30. Vandame, R. 1996. Importance de l’hybridation de l’hôte dans la tolérance à un parasite. Cas de l’acarien parasite Varroa jacobsoni chez les races d’abeilles Apis mellifera européenne et africaniséeau Mexique. Ph.D. dissertation, Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, France.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Zoological Society, Kolkata, India 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Département de BiologieUniversité M’hamed BougaraBoumerdesAlgeria
  2. 2.Laboratoire de Biologie et de Physiologie AnimaleENS koubaVieux-KoubaAlgeria
  3. 3.Bee Research DepartmentNational Center for Agriculture Research and ExtensionBaq’aJordan

Personalised recommendations