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Morphometric Analysis of Ghaghara River Basin, India, Using SRTM Data and GIS

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Abstract

Morphometric analysis in the recent few years has derived attention in terms of its applicability in different aspects of geological and environmental perspectives. It provides an insight into the process driven changes such as drainage basin assessment, runoff, infiltration, basin evolution, natural and tectonic framework etc. The study of the Ghaghara River fluvial dynamics in a gentle sloping region and alluvial terrain has not been put forward in a broad perspective as compared to hilly or hard rock terrains and needs to be addressed effectively. In the present paper, the morphometric analysis of the Ghaghara River has been carried out to delineate various surface processes that carve the basin into fluvial terrain. The basin delineation has been done using Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission (SRTM) data using Arc GIS 10.3. The study shows stream varying from one to six (I-1844, II-807, III-200, IV-49, V-23 and VI-1) orders. The mean bifurcation ratio indicates that the basin is geologically and structurally controlled in flat regions. The low stream frequency value 0–5km−2, explains that the basin under study is highly permeable. The length of overland flow (>0.7) is indicative of sheet erosion rather than channel erosion, while the drainage texture points towards the coarse texture. The morphometric analysis and observations from the measured parameters indicate an asymmetrical and elongated basin with neo-tectonic activities. Therefore, multi-fold interpretations are generated on the basis of the morphometric analysis of the Ghaghara river basin which may be useful in providing information relevant to societal interests.

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Acknowledgements

The authors would like to thanks Prof. Rameshwar Bali, Head, Department of Geology, University of Lucknow for providing infrastructural facilities. In addition, Ajay Pratap Singh is thankful to UGC, New Delhi for funding the research work under the Rajiv Gandhi National Fellowship (RGNF) (RGNF — Award no.: 201718-RGNF-2017-18-SC-UTT-30754).

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Correspondence to Ajay Kumar Arya.

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Singh, A.P., Arya, A.K. & Singh, D.S. Morphometric Analysis of Ghaghara River Basin, India, Using SRTM Data and GIS. J Geol Soc India 95, 169–178 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12594-020-1406-3

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