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Journal of the Geological Society of India

, Volume 95, Issue 1, pp 36–44 | Cite as

Sonapani Glacier Recession over a Century from 1906–2016, Chandra Basin, Himachal Himalaya

  • Zahid MajeedEmail author
  • Muneer Ahmad Mukhtar
  • Riyaz Ahmad Mir
  • Pawan Kumar
  • Kalyan Krishna
Research Articles
  • 21 Downloads

Abstract

In this study, the changes in snout and area of Sonapani glacier located in Chandra river valley, Himachal Himalaya has been studied over a century from 1906 to 2016. The study used a Survey Map (1906), Corona KH4-B (1971), Landsat 5 TM (1989), Landsat 7 ETM+ (2000) and Google Earth (2016) data images. In order to validate the satellite data images and other field studies, field work was carried out during 2014 in this area. The Survey Map (SM) of the Glacier was prepared by the Geological Survey of India (GSI) in 1906 and hence, demarcated its earliest snout position. Thus, the SM has been used as the base map for overall change detection studies. The study indicated a total glacier retreat of 1820 m at a rate of 16.5 ma−1 over a time period of century from 1906 to 2016. During the different time intervals, the SG has indicated variable recessional patterns. For instance, the glacier has retreated by 991 m at a rate of 15 ma−1 during 1906–1971, 202 m at a rate of 11.2 ma−1 during1971–1989, 31 m at a rate 2.8 ma−1 during 1989–2000 and 596 m at rate of 37.3 ma−1 during 2000–2016. During the recent time period from 2000 to 2016, the rate of recession has increased rapidly. Due to this rapid recession of the glacier a major tributary towards the lower left side has also detached from it. The glacier also indicated an area loss of 29.7% (6.85 km2) from 1906 (23.9 km2) to 2016 (17.09 km2).

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Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors are grateful to the Additional Director General & HOD, Geological Survey of India, Northern Region, Lucknow for providing facilities and logistics for the work. The authors wish a special thanks to the Dy. Director General and Regional Mission Head IV for their guidance and support that helped in a successful completion of the assignment. Sincere thanks are due to Shri Arun Chaturvedi, former Director, Glaciology Division, for his vision, guidance and valuable suggestion during field work and at headquarters. Authors are also indebted to Dr. Rajesh Asthana, Director & Dr. S.P. Shukla, Director, for their constant encouragement and guidance. Special thanks are due to Shri Rakesh Mishra, Superintending Geologist, GSI, NR, Lucknow for their valuable suggestions and guidance.

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Copyright information

© GEOL. SOC. INDIA 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Zahid Majeed
    • 1
    Email author
  • Muneer Ahmad Mukhtar
    • 1
  • Riyaz Ahmad Mir
    • 1
  • Pawan Kumar
    • 2
  • Kalyan Krishna
    • 2
  1. 1.State Unit: Jammu and KashmirGeological Survey of IndiaSrinagarIndia
  2. 2.Glaciology DivisionGeological Survey of IndiaLucknowIndia

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