Journal of the Geological Society of India

, Volume 94, Issue 5, pp 507–514 | Cite as

Assessment of Domestic Water Use Pattern and Drinking Water Quality of Sikkim, North Eastern Himalaya, India: A Cross-sectional Study

  • Pravat Kumar ShitEmail author
  • Gouri Sankar Bhunia
  • Manojit Bhattacharya
  • Bidhan Chandra Patra
Research Articles


The present study focused on the pattern of domestic water consumption in Sikkim state of India along with the assessment of the hydro-chemical and hydrobiological characteristics of drinking water quality. The pattern of water consumption and socioeconomic status were acquired through questionnaires and interview of 98 households in three major towns of Sikkim e.g. Gangtok, Ravangla and Pelling. Results showed that the hydrochemical parameters of drinking water were less than maximum permissible limit as prescribed by the World Health Organization (WHO) and Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS). Total coliforms, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus spp., Salmonella sp., Staphylococcus spp. and P. aeruginosa were detected in 80.2, 47.5, 49.8, 55.2 and 75 percent of the drinking water samples respectively. However, a careful household survey reveals that about 43% of respondents suffered from water-borne diseases during the monsoon period. For this reason 60% of people prefer boiling or detoxify the water before drinking.


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We are very much thankful to the student of MSc. in Geography, NSOU, study centre Raja N.L. Khan Women’s College, West Bengal for their valuable support to collect the field data.


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Authors and Affiliations

  • Pravat Kumar Shit
    • 1
    Email author
  • Gouri Sankar Bhunia
    • 2
  • Manojit Bhattacharya
    • 3
  • Bidhan Chandra Patra
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of GeographyRaja N. L. Khan Women’s CollegeMidnapurIndia
  2. 2.Aarvee Associates ArchitectsEngineers & Consultants Pvt LtdHyderabadIndia
  3. 3.Department of ZoologyVidyasagar UniversityMidnapurIndia

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