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Journal of the Geological Society of India

, Volume 92, Issue 6, pp 753–763 | Cite as

Geochemical Characterization and Controlling Factors of Chemical Composition of Spring Water in a Part of Eastern Himalaya

  • Chandrashekhar Azad Vishwakarma
  • Ratan Sen
  • Neha Singh
  • Priyadarshini Singh
  • Vikas Rena
  • Kumari Rina
  • Saumitra MukherjeeEmail author
Article
  • 39 Downloads

Abstract

This paper focuses on the suitability of spring water for drinking and irrigation purposes in a part of eastern Himalaya, south Sikkim. There are many anthropogenic and geogenic factors contributing as a source of major cations and anions in the spring water. The spring water chemistry show a variation in EC, pH, TDS, Temperature, Na+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+, Fe2+, Pb, Mn, Cu, HCO3-, Cl-, PO43-, NO3-, F- and SO42-. Mainly two types of water quality indexing has been used, one for suitability of spring water for drinking purposes and the other for irrigation purposes. For drinking purposes, Piper diagram used for determination of water type, water quality index (WQI) for quality monitoring and saturation index for mineral dissolution in water. % Na, RSC (Residual Sodium Carbon) and SAR (sodium absorption ratio) have been used for irrigation suitability. Piper diagram shows that CaHCO3 type of water was dominant in the study area. The WQI depicted excellent category and SAR, percent sodium and RSC (Residual Sodium Carbon) depict excellent, good and permissible category for irrigation purposes. Principle component analysis (PCA) was used to determine the major influencing factor responsible for the variability in the parameters analysed of spring water.

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Copyright information

© Geological Society of India 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Chandrashekhar Azad Vishwakarma
    • 1
  • Ratan Sen
    • 1
  • Neha Singh
    • 2
  • Priyadarshini Singh
    • 1
  • Vikas Rena
    • 1
  • Kumari Rina
    • 3
  • Saumitra Mukherjee
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.School of Environmental SciencesJawaharlal Nehru UniversityNew DelhiIndia
  2. 2.The M. S. University of Baroda, PratapgunjVadodaraIndia
  3. 3.School of Environment and Sustainable Developmentcentral university of GujaratGandhinagarIndia

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