Advertisement

Journal of the Geological Society of India

, Volume 92, Issue 6, pp 713–720 | Cite as

Geology and Active Tectonics of the Lalmai Hills, Bangladesh–An Overview from Chittagong Tripura Fold Belt Perspective

  • Md. Sharif Hossain Khan
  • Md. Sakawat HossainEmail author
  • Md. Azim Uddin
Article
  • 31 Downloads

Abstract

The Lalmai Hills is a low amplitude anticline with significant variations in landforms, situated along the western fringe of the Chittagong-Tripura Fold Belt (CTFB) and immediate east of the Indo-Burmese deformation front. This fold belt of the Bengal Basin along with more easterly Indo-Burman Range (IBR) developed as a consequence of the oblique collision between Indian and Burmese plates. This neotectonic activity is still continuing and shaping the geomorphology of the area. This study is conducted based on the geomorphological observation of the topo maps and satellite images, and through reconnaissance field work. Stream length gradient index (SL Index) and Mountain front sinuosity (Smf) reveals the relative status of tectonic activity. Anomalous SL index values confirm the position of the sympathetic minor faults and also relate to the local stratigraphy. A 2D structural model based on the seismic section reveals thrusts controlled wedge-shape upliftment of the central part as pop-up anticlinal structure. The western thrust is the direct result of the collision of the Indian and Burmese plates, and the eastern one is the back thrust of the western fault. Low Smf value found in the western flank signifies recent tectonics and relatively high Smf value in the eastern flank indicates that weathering intensity is relatively greater compared to western flank. Finally, the findings not only enhanced the understanding of geomorphic evolution and active tectonics of the Lalmai Hills area but also the overall tectonic and geomorphic evolution of the western most folded part of the CTFB.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Acharyya, S.K. (2007) Collisional emplacement history of the Naga-Andaman ophiolites and the position of the eastern Indian suture. Jour. Asian Earth Sci., v.29, pp.229–242. DOI:10.1016/j.jseaes.2006.03.003CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alam, M. (1989) Geology and depositional history of Cenozoic sediments of the Bengal Basin of Bangladesh. Palaeogeo., Palaeoclimat., Palaeoeco., v.69, pp.125–139. DOI: 10.1016/0031-0182(89)90159-4CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Alam, M., Alam, M.M., Curray, J.R., Chowdhury, M.L.R., and Gani, M.R. (2003) An overview of the sedimentary geology of the Bengal Basin in relation to the regional tectonic framework and basin-fill history. Sediment. Geol., v.155, pp.179–208. DOI:10.1016/S0037-0738(02)00180-XCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Ansary, M.A., Al-Hussaini, T.M., and Sharfuddin, M. (2000) Damage assessment of July 22, 1999 Moheshkhali Earthquake, Bangladesh. Paper presented at 8th ASCE Specialty Conference on Probabilistic Mechanics and Structural Reliability, Indiana, U.S.A., 6p.Google Scholar
  5. Bakhtine, M.I. (1966) Major Tectonic Features of Pakistan. Part-II: Eastern Pakistan. Science & Industries, v.4(2), pp.80–100.Google Scholar
  6. Bakr, M.A. (1977) Quaternary geomorphic evolution of the Brahmanbaria–Noakhali area, Comilla and Noakhali Districts, Bangladesh. Rec. Geol. Surv. Bangladesh, v.1(2), p.44.Google Scholar
  7. Biswas, S., Coutand, I., Grujic, D., Hager, C., Stöckli, D., and Grasemann, B. (2007) Exhumation and uplift of the Shillong plateau and its influence on the eastern Himalayas: New constraints from apatite and zircon (UTh-[ Sm])/He and apatite fission track analyses. Tectonics, v.26, TC6013. DOI: 10.1029/2007TC002125CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Brammer, H. (2012) The Physical Geography of Bangladesh. The university press Limited, Dhaka, 1st edition, 503p.Google Scholar
  9. Curiale, J., Covington, G., Shamsuddin, A., Morelos, J., and Shamsuddin, A. (2002) Origin of petroleum in Bangladesh. AAPG Bull., v.86(4), pp.625–652. DOI: 10.1306/61EEDB66-173E-11D7-8645000102C1865DGoogle Scholar
  10. Curray, J.R. (1991) Geological history of the Bengal geosyncline. Jour. Assoc. Explor. Geophysics, v.XII, pp.209–219.Google Scholar
  11. Curray, J.R., Emmel, F.J., and Moore, D.G. (2002) The Bengal Fan: morphology, geometry, stratigraphy, history and processes. Marine and Petroleum Geology, v.19, pp.1191–1223. DOI:10.1016/S0264-8172(03)00035-7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Curray, J.R., and Munasinghe, T. (1991) Origin of the Rajmahal Traps and the 85°E Ridge-preliminary reconstructions of the trace of the Crozet hotspot. Geology, v.19, pp.1237–1240. DOI: 10.1130/0091-7613(1991)019<1237:OOTRTA>2.3.CO;2CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. DeCelles, P.G. (2012) Foreland basin systems revisited: variations in response to tectonic settings. In: Tectonics of Sedimentary Basins: Recent Advances, Edited by Busby, C., and Azor Pe´rez, A., Blackwell Publishing Ltd, 1st edition, 664p.Google Scholar
  14. Gilbert, O. E. Jr. (2001) Structural Geology and Regional Tectonics of the Chittagong Hills Fold Belt, Eastern Bangladesh. GSA Annual Meeting, November 5–8, 2001, Tectonics II: Fold-Thrust Belts and Collisional Processes, Session no.137.Google Scholar
  15. Goodbred, S.L., and Kuehl, S.A. (1999) Holocene and modern sediment budgets for the Ganges-Brahmaputra river system: Evidence for highstand dispersal to flood-plain, shelf, and deep-sea depocenters. Geology, v.27(6), pp.559–562. DOI:10.1130/0091-7613(1999)027<0559:HAMSBF>2.3.CO;2CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Hack, J.T. (1973) Stream-profile analysis and stream-gradient index. Journal Research of United States Geological Survey, v.1, pp.421–429. http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70161653 Google Scholar
  17. Hirschmiller, J., Grujic, D., Bookhagen, B., Coutand, I., Huyghe, P., Mugnier, J.-L., and Ojha, T. (2014) What controls the growth of the Himalayan foreland fold-and-thrust belt? Geology, v.42(3), pp.247–250. DOI: 10.1130/G35057.1CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Hossain, K.M. (1988) Earthquake Occurrences and Tectonics in Bangladesh. Bangladesh Jour. Geol., v.7, pp.1–10.Google Scholar
  19. Hossain, M.E., Khan, M.A., Sikdar, M.N.I., and Block, M. (2001) Seismic Sequence Stratigraphy and Structural Development in the Lalmai area, Eastern Bangladesh. Bangladesh Jour. Geol., v.20, pp.67–76.Google Scholar
  20. Hossain, M.S., Chowdhury, K.R., Khan, M.S.H., and Abdullah, R. (2016) Geotectonic Settings of the Dauki Fault–A Highly Potential Source for a Significant Seismic Threat. In: Kruhl, J.H. (Ed.), International Conference Humboldt Kolleg on Living under Threat of Earthquake–Kathmandu, Nepal. Abstract volume, p.25.Google Scholar
  21. Hossain, M.S., Khan, M.S.H., Chowdhury, K.R., and Abdullah R. (2018) Synthesis of the Tectonic and Structural Elements of the Bengal Basin and Its Surroundings. In: Mukherjee S. (Eds.), Tectonics and Structural Geology: Indian Context. Springer Geology. Springer, Cham, 455p.Google Scholar
  22. Hossain, M.S., Khan, M.S.H., Chowdhury, K.R., and Afrooz, M. (2014) Morpho-structural classification of the Indo-Burman Ranges and the adjacent regions. In: National conference on Rock Deformation & Structures (RDS-III), Assam, India. Abstract volume, p.31.Google Scholar
  23. Islam, M.K., Ahsan, K., Nizamuddin, M., and Majlis, A.B.K. (2001) Evidences of Neotectonics in and around Lalmai Hills, Bangladesh. Bangladesh Jour. Geology, v.20, pp.55–65.Google Scholar
  24. Johnson, S.Y., and Alam, A.M.N. (1991) Sedimentation and tectonics of the Sylhet trough, Bangladesh. Geol. Soc. Am. Bull., v.103(11), pp.1513–1527. DOI:10.1130/0016-7606(1991)103<1513:SATOTS>2.3.CO;2CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Kayal, J.R. (2008) Microearthquake Seismology and Seimotectonics of South Asia. Dordrecht: Springer, 449 p.Google Scholar
  26. Keller, E.A., and Pinter, N. (2002) Active Tectonics: Earthquake, Uplift, and Landscape, Prentice-Hall Inc., 2nd edition, 359p.Google Scholar
  27. Khan, F.H. (1991) Geology of Bangladesh. The University Press Limited, Dhaka, 203p.Google Scholar
  28. Khan, M.S.H., Biswas, S., Singh, S., and Pati, P. (2006) OSL choronology of Dihing Formation and recent upliftment rate along the Dauki Fault, NE Bangladesh. Bangladesh Geosci. Jour., v.12, pp.1–11.Google Scholar
  29. Khan, M.S.H., Haque, M.M., Pati, P., Chowdhury, K.R. and Biswas, S. (2015) OSL derived uplift rate of Dakhin Nhila anticline along the southeastern coast of the Bay of Bengal, Bangladesh. Himalayan Geol., v.36(2), pp.143–152.Google Scholar
  30. Khan M.S.H., Hossain, M.S., and Chowdhury K.R. (2017) Geomorphic Implication and Active Tectonics of the Sitapahar Anticline–CTFB Bangladesh. Bangladesh Geosci. Jour., v.23, pp.1–24.Google Scholar
  31. Khan, M.S.H., Parkash, B., and Kumar, S. (2005) Soil-landform development of a part of the fold belt along the eastern coast of Bangladesh. Geomorphology, v.71(3–4), pp.310–327. DOI:10.1016/j.geomorph.2005.03.003CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Mandal, B.C., Woobidullah, A.S.M., and Guha, D.K. (2004) Structural Style Analysis of the Semutang Anticline, Chittagong Hill Tracts, Eastern Fold Belt of the Bengal Basin, Bangladesh. Jour. Geol. Soc. India, v.64, pp.211–222.Google Scholar
  33. Matin, M.A., Khan, M.A.M., Fariduddin, M., Boul, M.A., Hossain, M.M.T., and Kononov, A.I. (1983) The tectonic map of Bangladesh–Past & present. Bangladesh Jour. Geol., v.2, pp.29–36.Google Scholar
  34. Maurin, T., and Rangin, C. (2009) Structure and kinematics of the Indo-Burmese Wedge: Recent and fast growth of the outer wedge. Tectonics, v.28(2), TC2010, DOI:10.1029/2008TC002276.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Monsur, M.H. (1995) An Introduction to the Quaternary Geology of Bangladesh. City Press and Publications, Dhaka, Bangladesh, 70p.Google Scholar
  36. Morgan, J.P., and McIntire, W.G. (1959) Quaternary geology of the Bengal Basin East Pakistan and India. Bull. Geol. Soc. Amer., v.70, pp.319–341.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Najman, Y., Bracciali, L., Parrish, R.R., Chisty, E., and Copley, A. (2016) Evolving strain partitioning in the Eastern Himalaya: The growth of the Shillong Plateau. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, v.433, pp.1–9. DOI:10.1016/j.epsl.2015.10.017CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Roy M.K., Ammed S.S., Bhattacharjee T.K., Moniruzzaman, M., Haque M.M., Haque, K.E. (2010) Petrography, Provenance and Paleoclimate of the Dupi Tila Sandstones, Lalmai Hills, Comilla. The IUP Jour. Earth Sci., v.4(4), pp.49–66.Google Scholar
  39. Roy, M.K., Ammed, S.S., Bhattacharjee, T.K., Mahmud, S., Moniruzzaman, M., Haque, M.M., Saha, S., Molla, M.I., and Roy, P.C. (2012) Paleoenvironment of Deposition of the Dupi Tila Formation, Lalmai Hills, Comilla, Bangladesh. Journal Geological Society of India, v.80, pp.409–419. DOI:10.1007/s12594-012-0159-zCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Schumm, S.A., Dumont, J.F., and Holbrook, J.M. (2002) Active Tectonics and Alluvial Rivers, Cambridge University Press, 292p.Google Scholar
  41. Shamsuddin, A.H.M., and Abdullah, S.K.M. (1997) Geological evolution of the Bengal Basin and its implication to hydrocarbon exploration in Bangladesh. Indian Jour. Geol., v.69, pp.93–121.Google Scholar
  42. Sikder, A.M., and Alam, M.M. (2003) 2-D modelling of the anticlinal structures and structural development of the eastern fold belt of the Bengal Basin, Bangladesh. Jour. Sediment. Geol., v.155, pp.209–226. DOI:10.1016/S0037-0738(02)00181-1CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Steckler, M.S., Akhter, S.H., and Seeber, L. (2008) Collision of the Ganges–Brahmaputra Delta with the Burma Arc: Implications for earthquake hazard. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., v.273(3), pp.367–378. DOI:10.1016/j.epsl.2008.07.009CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Steckler, M.S., Mondal, D.R., Akhter, S.H., Seeber, L., Feng, L., Gale, J., Hill, E.M., and Howe, M. (2016) Locked and loading megathrust linked to active subduction beneath the Indo-Burman Ranges. Nature Geoscience, v.9, pp.615–618. DOI:10.1038/ngeo2760CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Uddin, M.A. (2015) Geology of Lalmai Hills–A review. Unpublished MS project report, Department of Geological Sciences, Jahangirnagar University, Savar, Dhaka, p.29 (unpubld).Google Scholar
  46. Wang, Y., Sieh, K., Tun, S.T., Lai, K.-Y., and Myint, T. (2014) Active tectonics and earthquake potential of the Myanmar region. Jour. Geophys. Res., Solid Earth, v.119, pp.3767–3822. doi:10.1002/2013JB010762.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Zhang, L., and Guilbert, E. (2012) A Study of Variables Characterizing Drainage Patterns in River Networks. International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences, v.XXXIX-B2, pp.29–34. http://hdl.handle.net/10397/58511. Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Geological Society of India 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Md. Sharif Hossain Khan
    • 1
  • Md. Sakawat Hossain
    • 1
    Email author
  • Md. Azim Uddin
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Geological SciencesJahangirnagar UniversityDhakaIndia

Personalised recommendations