Satellite-Derived Regional Apparent Thermal Inertia and Gravity for Mapping Different Rock Types in Parts of Banswara, Rajasthan
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In this study, utility of satellite derived Apparent Thermal Inertia (ATI) and residual gravity data have been analyzed for delineating the major rock types of Aravalli Supergroup. Density is a common contributing factor responsible for ATI and gravity variations of rock types. In addition to density, thermal inertia is also controlled by specific heat and thermal conductivity. In the present study, MODIS (Moderate resolution imaging spectrometer) day and consecutive night time land surface temperature (LST), albedo data have been processed to derive ATI image for the study area. On the other hand, Bouguer gravity generated from EIGEN6C4 gravity model data is processed to derive the residual gravity over the study area. It has been observed that ATI values of different rock types are influenced by the variations in weathering pattern and forest cover developed over the rock in addition to the thermophysical parameters of rocks. Forest cover and agricultural activity are responsible for shifting the ATI values to higher side for any rocks due to evapotranspiration; which is responsible for reducing day and night land surface temperature difference. ATI pixels( collected from large rock pavements) of different rocks can however, be used to discriminate them from each other. Conjugate analysis of residual gravity and ATI has been proved useful to discriminate different rock types of spatially well distributed rock exposures. It is found that ATI and gravity values are well correlated for the spatially large surface exposures of rocks. In regional scale, low frequency changes of ATI broadly matches with the changes observed on the corresponding spatial profiles of residual gravity with some localized variations. This is due to the fact that shallow surface gravity anomaly is cumulative effect of vertical and horizontal variations of density in contrast to ATI which is more sensitive to near surface density, conductivity and specific heat variations of rocks. Moreover, high frequency variations imprinted on regional ATI spatial profiles are due to the cumulative effect of complex thermophysical properties of surface elements (weathering residuum, surface moisture variations) density variation and intrinsic thermophysical properties of rocks measured at regional scale. High frequency changes of ATI do not correspond well with residual gravity variation.
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