Groundwater Quality assessment using Water Quality Index (WQI) in parts of Varanasi District, Uttar Pradesh, India
- 73 Downloads
The water quality index (WQI) is an important tool to determine the drinking water quality in urban, rural and industrial area. WQI is defined as an index reflecting the composite influence of different water quality parameters which is considered and taken for calculation of water quality index. In the present study, sixteen groundwater samples were collected from the southern portion of the Varanasi district, Uttar Pradesh, India, during the pre monsoon period of May, 2015. The twenty two water quality parameters have been considered for the calculation of water quality index viz. pH, electrical conductivity (EC), total hardness (TH), total dissolved solid (TDS), alkalinity, sodium (Na+), potassium (K+), calcium (Ca2+), magnesium (Mg2+), nitrates (NO3"), bicarbonate (HCO3–), chlorides (Cl–), sulphates (SO4–), fluorides (F–), chromium (Cr), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), iron (Fe), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd). The Bureau of Indian Standard (BIS, 2012) has been considered to assess the suitability of groundwater for drinking purposes and for the calculation of WQI. Correlation study between various physicochemical properties also reveals significant negative relationships. The current study shows that ~20% area is falling under the non suitable for drinking water category and rest is falling under good, moderate, poor, very poor as per the WQI classification. The present study is helpful in proper planning and management of available water resource for drinking purpose.
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Anitha, P., Charmaine, J. and Nagaraja, S. (2011) Evaluation of groundwater quality in and around Peenya industrial area of Bangalore, South India using GIS techniques. Environ Monit Assess. doi: 10.1007/s10661-011-2244-y.Google Scholar
- APHA (1995) Standard method for the examination of water and waste water (14th Ed.) Washington D.C. Amer. Public Health Association, no.409A, pp.316-317.Google Scholar
- Arumugam, K. (2010) Assessment of Groundwater Quality in Tirupur Region, PhD Thesis (Unpublished). Anna University, Chennai.Google Scholar
- BIS (Bureau of Indian Standard) (2012) 10500, Indian standard drinking water specification, Second revision, pp.1-24.Google Scholar
- Brown, R.M., McCleiland, N.J., Deininger, R.A. and O’Connor, M.F. (1972) A water quality index–Crossing the Psychological barrier In: Jenkis, S.H. (Ed.). Proc. Int. Conf. Water Pollution Res., Jerusalem, v.6, pp.787–797.Google Scholar
- Central Groundwater Board (2014) Groundwater Year Book; 2013–14.Google Scholar
- Hopfer, S.M., Fay, W.P., Sunderman, F.W. Jr. (1989) Serum nickel concentrations in hemodialysis patients with environmental exposure. Annals of Clinical Laboratory Science, v.19, pp.161–167.Google Scholar
- Janardhana Raju, N., Sangita Dey and Kaushik Das (2009) Fluoride contamination in groundwaters of Sonbhadra District, Uttar Pradesh, India; Curr. Sci., v.96(7), pp.979–984.Google Scholar
- Kumar, S.K., Logeshkumaran, A., Magesh, N.S., Godson, P.S., Chandrasekar, N. (2014) Hydrogeochemistry and application of water quality index (WQI) for groundwater quality assessment, Anna Nagar, part of Chennai City, Tamil Nadu, India. Appld. Water Sci., doi: 10.1007/s13201014-0196-4.Google Scholar
- Mangukiya, R., Bhattacharya, T. and Chakraborty, S. (2012) Quality characterization of groundwater using water quality index in Surat city, Gujarat, India. Internat. Res. Jour. Environ. Sci., v.1, pp.14–23.Google Scholar
- McNeely M.D., Nechay M.W., Sunderman F.W. Jr. (1972) Measurements of nickel in serum and urine as indices of environmental exposure to nickel. Clinical Chemistry, v.18, pp.992–995.Google Scholar
- Scragg, A. (2006) Environmental Biotechnology, Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK, 2nd edition.Google Scholar
- Smith, L.A., Means, J.L., Chen, A. et al. (1995) Remedial Options for Metals-Contaminated Sites, Lewis Publishers, Boca Raton, Fla, USA.Google Scholar
- VCI, Copper history/Future, Van Commodities Inc., 2011, https://doi.org/trademetalfutures.com/copperhistory.html.
- WHO. (2012) Guidelines for drinking water, recommendations.Google Scholar