Advertisement

Groundwater Quality assessment using Water Quality Index (WQI) in parts of Varanasi District, Uttar Pradesh, India

  • Abhishek Kumar Chaurasia
  • H. K. Pandey
  • S. K. Tiwari
  • Ram Prakash
  • Prashant Pandey
  • Arjun Ram
Article
  • 73 Downloads

Abstract

The water quality index (WQI) is an important tool to determine the drinking water quality in urban, rural and industrial area. WQI is defined as an index reflecting the composite influence of different water quality parameters which is considered and taken for calculation of water quality index. In the present study, sixteen groundwater samples were collected from the southern portion of the Varanasi district, Uttar Pradesh, India, during the pre monsoon period of May, 2015. The twenty two water quality parameters have been considered for the calculation of water quality index viz. pH, electrical conductivity (EC), total hardness (TH), total dissolved solid (TDS), alkalinity, sodium (Na+), potassium (K+), calcium (Ca2+), magnesium (Mg2+), nitrates (NO3"), bicarbonate (HCO3), chlorides (Cl), sulphates (SO4), fluorides (F), chromium (Cr), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), iron (Fe), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd). The Bureau of Indian Standard (BIS, 2012) has been considered to assess the suitability of groundwater for drinking purposes and for the calculation of WQI. Correlation study between various physicochemical properties also reveals significant negative relationships. The current study shows that ~20% area is falling under the non suitable for drinking water category and rest is falling under good, moderate, poor, very poor as per the WQI classification. The present study is helpful in proper planning and management of available water resource for drinking purpose.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Anitha, P., Charmaine, J. and Nagaraja, S. (2011) Evaluation of groundwater quality in and around Peenya industrial area of Bangalore, South India using GIS techniques. Environ Monit Assess. doi: 10.1007/s10661-011-2244-y.Google Scholar
  2. APHA (1995) Standard method for the examination of water and waste water (14th Ed.) Washington D.C. Amer. Public Health Association, no.409A, pp.316-317.Google Scholar
  3. Arumugam, K. (2010) Assessment of Groundwater Quality in Tirupur Region, PhD Thesis (Unpublished). Anna University, Chennai.Google Scholar
  4. BIS (Bureau of Indian Standard) (2012) 10500, Indian standard drinking water specification, Second revision, pp.1-24.Google Scholar
  5. Brown, R.M., McCleiland, N.J., Deininger, R.A. and O’Connor, M.F. (1972) A water quality index–Crossing the Psychological barrier In: Jenkis, S.H. (Ed.). Proc. Int. Conf. Water Pollution Res., Jerusalem, v.6, pp.787–797.Google Scholar
  6. Central Groundwater Board (2014) Groundwater Year Book; 2013–14.Google Scholar
  7. Dojlido, J.R., Raniszewski, J.R., Woyciechowska, J. (1994) Water quality index applied to rivers in the Vistula river basin in Poland. Environ, Monit, Assess., v.33, pp.33–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Hopfer, S.M., Fay, W.P., Sunderman, F.W. Jr. (1989) Serum nickel concentrations in hemodialysis patients with environmental exposure. Annals of Clinical Laboratory Science, v.19, pp.161–167.Google Scholar
  9. Janardhana Raju, N., Sangita Dey and Kaushik Das (2009) Fluoride contamination in groundwaters of Sonbhadra District, Uttar Pradesh, India; Curr. Sci., v.96(7), pp.979–984.Google Scholar
  10. Kannel, P.R., Lee, S., Lee, Y.-S, Kanel, S.R., Khan, S.P. (2007) Application of water quality indices and dissolved oxygen as indicators of river water classification and urban impact assessment. Environ. Monit. Assess., v.132 (2), pp.93–110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Krishna Kumar, S., Chandrasekar, N., Seralathan, P., Godson, P.S., Magesh, N.S. (2011) Hydrogeochemical study of shallow carbonate aquifers, Rameswaram Island, India. Environ. Monit. Assess. v.184 (7), pp.4127–4139.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Kumar, S.K., Logeshkumaran, A., Magesh, N.S., Godson, P.S., Chandrasekar, N. (2014) Hydrogeochemistry and application of water quality index (WQI) for groundwater quality assessment, Anna Nagar, part of Chennai City, Tamil Nadu, India. Appld. Water Sci., doi: 10.1007/s13201014-0196-4.Google Scholar
  13. Mangukiya, R., Bhattacharya, T. and Chakraborty, S. (2012) Quality characterization of groundwater using water quality index in Surat city, Gujarat, India. Internat. Res. Jour. Environ. Sci., v.1, pp.14–23.Google Scholar
  14. McNeely M.D., Nechay M.W., Sunderman F.W. Jr. (1972) Measurements of nickel in serum and urine as indices of environmental exposure to nickel. Clinical Chemistry, v.18, pp.992–995.Google Scholar
  15. Nagel, J.W., Colley, D., Smith, D.G. (2001) A water quality index for contact recreation in New Zealand. Water Sci. Tech., v.43(5), pp.285–292.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Nasirian, M. (2007) A new water quality index for environmental contamination contributed by mineral processing: a case study of Amang (tin tailing) processing activity. Jour. Appld. Sci., v.7(20), pp.2977–2987.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Pesce, S.F., Wunderlin, D.A. (2000) Use of water quality indices to verify the impact of Cordoba city (Argentina) on Suquia river. Water Res., v.34(11), pp.2915–2936.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Sadat-Noori, S.M., Ebrahimi, K., Liaghat, A.M. (2014) Groundwater quality assessment using the Water Quality Index and GIS in Saveh-Nobaran aquifer, Iran. Environ. Earth Sci., v.71, pp.3827–3843, doi: 10.1007/s12665-013-2770-8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Sargaonkar, A., Deshpande, V. (2003) Development of an overall index of pollution for surface water based on general classification scheme in Indian context. Environ. Monit. Assess., v.89, pp.43–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Scragg, A. (2006) Environmental Biotechnology, Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK, 2nd edition.Google Scholar
  21. Singh, R.P., Nath, S., Prasad, S.C., Nema, A.K. (2008) Selections of suitable aggregation function for estimation of aggregate pollution for river Ganges in India. Jour. Environ. Engg., v.134(8), pp.689–701.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Smith, D.G. (1990) A better water quality indexing system for rivers and streams. Water Res., v.24(10), pp.1237–1244.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Smith, L.A., Means, J.L., Chen, A. et al. (1995) Remedial Options for Metals-Contaminated Sites, Lewis Publishers, Boca Raton, Fla, USA.Google Scholar
  24. Stambuk-Giljanvoic, N. (1999) Water quality evaluation by index in Dalmatia. Water Res., v.33(16), pp.3423–3440.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. VCI, Copper history/Future, Van Commodities Inc., 2011, https://doi.org/trademetalfutures.com/copperhistory.html.
  26. WHO. (2012) Guidelines for drinking water, recommendations.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Geological Society of India 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Abhishek Kumar Chaurasia
    • 1
  • H. K. Pandey
    • 2
  • S. K. Tiwari
    • 3
  • Ram Prakash
    • 4
  • Prashant Pandey
    • 1
  • Arjun Ram
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Geology, Institute of ScienceBanaras Hindu UniversityVaranasiIndia
  2. 2.Department of Civil EngineeringMNNITAllahabadIndia
  3. 3.UGC-Academic Staff College (HRDC)Banaras Hindu UniversityVaranasiIndia
  4. 4.Central Groundwater BoardLucknowIndia

Personalised recommendations