# Error in digital network and basin area delineation using d8 method: A case study in a sub-basin of the Ganga

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## Abstract

Digital elevation model (DEM) is one of the input data derived from different satellite sensors for hydrologic and hydraulic modelings. Two prime questions could be answered before using these DEMs. First, the acceptability of datasets for our use and second appropriate resolution of the dataset. Three widely used DEMs SRTM 30m, ASTER 30m and SRTM 90m are analyzed to evaluate their suitability to delineate river network and basin boundary area. The hydrology tool of spatial analyst extension inbuilt in ArcGIS 10.2 (which uses the D8 method for calculation of flow direction) has been used for the delineation of both river networks and basin boundary. The assessment of river network alignment and boundary delineation is carried out in the seven sub-catchments of Gandak river basin having different morphological characteristics. The automatically delineated boundary area for all the three DEMs reflects a significant difference when compared with the digitized basin area from the Ganga flood control commission (GFCC) map. The maximum boundary area delineation error is 39137.20 km_{2} forASTER 30m, and minimum delineation error of 13239.28 km_{2} for SRTM 90m. In the stream network, delineation accuracy is good for SRTM 90m while, except Gandak trunk, ASTER 30m DEM shows better delineation accuracy indicated by mean absolute error (MAE) and standard deviation (SD).

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