Journal of the Geological Society of India

, Volume 88, Issue 5, pp 559–568 | Cite as

Discovery of Elephas cf. namadicus from the late Pleistocene strata of Marginal Ganga Plain

  • Rupa Ghosh
  • R. K. Sehgal
  • Pradeep Srivastava
  • U. K. Shukla
  • A. C. Nanda
  • D. S. Singh
Research Articles

Abstract

We describe an elephant skull recovered from a cliff section of Dhasan river of Marginal Ganga Plain. The dental morphology and cranial features of the skull have been compared with the known species of Elephas from the Indian subcontinent. Although it shows very near resemblance to Elephas namadicus, but being an isolated specimen its specific identity cannot be proclaimed with certainty. As such, the specimen is provisionally referred as E. cf. namadicus. The Optically Stimulated Luminescence ages place this find at ~56 ka BP. This is the first chronologically well constrained report of E. cf. namadicus from the Ganga Plain.

Keywords

E. cf. namadicus Optically Stimulated Luminescence dating Dhasan river Southern Ganga plain 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Agarwal, K., Singh, I. B., Sharma, M., Sharma, S. and Rajagopalan, G. (2002) Extensional tectonic activity in the cratonward parts (peripheral bulge) of the Ganga Plain foreland basin, India. Internat. Jour. Earth Sci., v.91(5), pp.897–905.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Agrawal, S., Galy, V., Sanyal, P. And Eglinton, T. (2014) C 4 plant expansion in the Ganga Plain during the last glacial cycle: insights from isotopic composition of vascular plant biomarkers. Organic Geochemistry, v.67, pp. 58–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Agrawal, S., Sanyal, P., Sarkar, A., Jaiswal, M.K. and Dutta, K. (2012) Variability of Indian monsoonal rainfall over the past 100ka and its implication for C 3–C 4 vegetational change. Quat. Res., v.77 (1), pp.159–170.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Aitken, M.J. (1998) An Introduction to Optical Dating. Oxford University Press, London, pp.267Google Scholar
  5. Badam, G.L. (1979) Quaternary palaeontology of the Central NarmadaValley and its implications in the prehistoric studies. Geol. Surv. India Misc. Publ., v.(45), pp.311–320.Google Scholar
  6. Chauhan, N. And Singhvi, A.K. (2011) Distribution in SAR palaeodoses due to spatial heterogeniety of natural beta dose. Geochronometria, v. 38, pp.190–198.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Chauhan, P. R. (2008) Large mammal fossil occurrences and associated archaeological evidence in Pleistocene contexts of peninsular India and Sri Lanka. Quat. Internat., v.192, pp.20–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Falconer, H. And Cautley, P.T. (1846). Fauna Antiqua Sivalensis: Proboscidea. 1846-1847. Smith, Elder.Google Scholar
  9. Ghosh, A. (1989) Encyclopedia of Indian Archaeology. New Delhi: Munshiram Manoharlal, v. 2, pp. 311.Google Scholar
  10. Gibling, M. R., Tandon, S. K., Sinha, R., and Jain, M. (2005) Discontinuity-bounded alluvial sequences of the southern Gangetic Plains, India: aggradation and degradation in response to monsoonal strength. Jou. Sediment. Res., v.75(3), pp. 369–385.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Juyal, N., Chamyal, L. S., Bhandari, S., Bhushan, R. and Singhvi, A.K. (2006) Continental record of the southwest monsoon during the last 130ka: evidence from the southern margin of the Thar Desert, India. Quat. Sci. Rev., v.25, pp.2632–2650.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Juyal, N., Sundriyal, Y., Rana, N., Chaudhary, S. and Singhvi, A.K. (2010) Late Quaternary fluvial aggradation and incision in the monsoon-dominated Alaknanda valley, Central Himalaya, Uttrakhand, India. Jour. Quat. Sci., v.25, pp.1293–1304.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Kumar, R., Suresh, N., Sangode, S. J. and Kumaravel, V. (2007) Evolution of the Quaternary alluvial fan system in the Himalayan foreland basin: Implications for tectonic and climatic decoupling. Quat. Internat., v.159(1), pp.6–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Maglio, V. J. (1973) Origin and evolution of the Elephantidae. Trans. Amer. Philosop. Soc., pp.1–149.Google Scholar
  15. Murray, A.S. and Wintle, A.G. (2000) Luminescence dating of quartz using an improved single-aliquot regenerative-dose protocol. Radiation measurements, v.32 (1), pp.57–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Nanda, A.C. (2002) Upper Siwalik mammalian faunas of India and associated events. Jour. Asian Earth Sci., v.21(1), pp.47–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Nanda, A. C. (2008) Comments on the Pinjor Mammalian Fauna of the Siwalik Group in relation to the post-Siwalik faunas of Peninsular India and Indo-Gangetic Plain. Quat. Int., v.192, pp.6–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Prasad And Daniel (1968) On the occurrence of Hypselephas hysudricus in the Pleistocene deposits of Tirunelveli, Madras State. Curr. Sci., v.18, pp.516–517.Google Scholar
  19. Prell, W. L. and Kutzbach, J. E. (1987) Monsoon variability over the past 150,000 years. Jour. Geophy. Res., Atmospheres (1984–2012), v.92 (D7), pp.8411–8425.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Prescott, J.R. and Stephan, L.G. (1982) Contribution of cosmic radiation to environmental dose. PACT 6, pp.17–25.Google Scholar
  21. Ray, Y. and Srivastava, P. (2010) Widespread aggradation in the mountainous catchment of the Alaknanda–Ganga River System: timescales and implications to Hinterland–foreland relationships. Quat. Sci. Rev., v.29 (17), pp.2238–2260.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Satsangi, P.P. and Datta, A.K. (1967) The Pleistocene alluvial deposits of Allahabad District, Uttar Pradesh. Unpublished field report, Geol. Surv. India.Google Scholar
  23. Shipton, C., Mishra, S., Paddayya, K., Deo, S. G., Pal, J. N., Roseboom, N., Gaillard, C., Gupta, M. C. and Hou, Y. (2014) Empirical Differences between the Earlier and Later Acheulian in India. Recent Advances in Acheulian Culture Studies in India (K. Paddayya and S.G. Deo Eds.), pp. 23–36.Google Scholar
  24. Shukla, U. K., Srivastava, P. and Singh, I. B. (2012) Migration of the Ganga River and development of cliffs in the Varanasi region, India during the Late Quaternary: Role of active tectonics. Geomorphology, v.171, pp.101–113.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Singh, I. B. (1996) Geological evolution of Ganga Plain—an overview. Jour. Palaeont. Soc. India, v.41, pp.99–137.Google Scholar
  26. Singh, I. B., Rajagopalan, G., Agarwal, K. K., Srivastava, P., Sharma, M. and Sharma, S. (1997) Evidence of Middle to Late Holocene neotectonic activity in the Ganga Plain. Curr. Sci., v.73 (12), pp.1114–1117.Google Scholar
  27. Singh, I. B., Sharma, S., Sharma, M., Srivastava, P. and Rajagopalan, G. (1999) Evidence of human occupation and humid climate of 30 ka in the alluvium of southern Ganga Plain. Curr. Sci., v.76 (7), pp.1022–1026.Google Scholar
  28. Singh, R. (1965) The Palaeolithic industry of northern Bundelkhand. Unpublished Ph.D. Thesis. Deccan College Library, Poona, pp.66–79.Google Scholar
  29. Singhvi, A.K. and Krbetschek, M.R. (1996) Luminescence dating: a review and a perspective for arid zone sediments. Ann. Arid Zone, v.33, pp.249–279.Google Scholar
  30. Sinha, R., Gibling, M.R., Tondon, S.K., Jain. V. and Dasgupta, A.S. (2005) Quaternary Stratigraphy and sedimentology of Kotra section on the Betwa River, Southern Gangatic Plains, Uttar Pradesh. Jour. Geol. Soc. India, v.65, pp.441–450.Google Scholar
  31. Srivastava, P., Juyal, N., Singhvi, A. K., Wasson, R. J. and Bateman, M. D. (2001) Luminescence chronology of river adjustment and incision of Quaternary sediments in the alluvial plain of the Sabarmati River, north Gujarat, India. Geomorphology, v.36 (3), pp.217–229.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Srivastava, P., Singh, I. B., Sharma, M., and Singhvi, A.K. (2003) Luminescence chronometry and Late Quaternary geomorphic history of the Ganga Plain, India. Palaeogeo., Palaeoclimat., Palaeoeco., v.197(1), pp.15–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Tewari, R., Pant, P.C., Singh, I.B., Sharma, S., Sharma, M., Srivastava, P., Singhvi, A.K., Mishra, P. K. and Tobschall, H.J. (2002) Middle Palaeolithic Human Activity and Palaeoclimate at Kalpi in Yamuna Valley, Ganga Plain. Man and Environment, v.27(2), pp.1–14.Google Scholar
  34. Tripathi, C. and Basu, P. K. (1983) A fossil elephant from the Middle Pleistocene alluvial deposits of Narmada Valley, M. P. Jour. Pal. Soc. India, v 28, pp. 63–66.Google Scholar
  35. Verma, B.C., Mishra, V.P., Mishra, A. and Kumar, U. (1998) Discovery of Early Quaternary vertebrate fossils beneath the Ganga river bed at Bhagalpur, Bihar: their age and biostratigraphic implications. Jour. Palaeont. Soc. India, v.43, pp.35–40.Google Scholar
  36. Vidya, T.N.C., Sukumar, R. and Melnick, D.J. (2009) Range-wide mtDNA phylogeography yields insights into the origins of Asian elephants. Proc. Royal Soc., B: Biological Sciences, v.276 (1658), pp.893–902.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Williams, M.A.J., Pal, J.N., Jaiswal, M. and Singhvi, A.K. (2006) River response to Quaternary climatic fluctuations: evidence from the Son and Belan valleys, north-central India. Quat. Sci. Rev., v.25(19), pp.2619–2631.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Geological Society of India 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rupa Ghosh
    • 1
  • R. K. Sehgal
    • 1
  • Pradeep Srivastava
    • 1
  • U. K. Shukla
    • 2
  • A. C. Nanda
    • 1
  • D. S. Singh
    • 3
  1. 1.Wadia Institute of Himalayan GeologyDehradunIndia
  2. 2.Department of GeologyBanaras Hindu UniversityVaranasiIndia
  3. 3.Centre of Advanced Study in GeologyUniversity of LucknowLucknowIndia

Personalised recommendations