Journal of the Geological Society of India

, Volume 79, Issue 2, pp 175–180 | Cite as

New cynodont record from the lower Triassic Panchet Formation, Damodar valley

  • D. P. Das
  • Abir GuptaEmail author


This paper reports the find of a new non-mammalian cynodont from the Lower Triassic Panchet Formation of the Damodar valley, West Bengal, India. The fossil, recovered from a clay pellet rich calcareous sandstone bed, is a part of left lower jaw having five post canines that are damaged to various extents. A combination of mammal-like advanced characters such as much enlarged dentary, reduced post dentary bones, high coronoid process, large masseteric fossa, each post canine with a large central cusp flanked by a distal and a mesial accessory cusps with two additional lingually positioned cingular cusps, incipient root division and clearly demarcated crown-root juncture prompted to erect a new taxon Panchetocynodon damodarensis gen. et sp. nov.


Cynodont Lower Triassic Panchet Damodar Valley India 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Battail, B. (1991) Les cynodontes (Reptilia, Therapsida): une phylogenie. Bull. Mus. National d× histoire Naturelle, Series 4, 13c(4), pp.17–105.Google Scholar
  2. Benton, M.J. (1997) Vertebrate Palaeontology. Chapman & Hall, 2nd Edition, 452p.Google Scholar
  3. Bonaparte, J.F., Martinelli, A.G., Schultz, C.L. and Rubert, R. (2003) The sister group of mammals: small cynodonts from the Late Triassic of Southern Brazil. Revista Brasileira de paleontologia, v.5, pp.5–27.Google Scholar
  4. Botha, J., Abdala, F. and Smith, R. (2007) The oldest cynodont: new clues on the origin and early diversification of the cynodontia. Zoological Jour. Linnean Soc., v.149, pp.477–492.Google Scholar
  5. Dasgupta, H.C. (1922) Notes on the Panchet Reptile. Sir Asutosh Mukherjee Silver Jubilee Volumes (Published by Calcutta University), v.2, pp.237–241.Google Scholar
  6. Dasgupta, H.C. (1926) Palaeontological notes on the Panchet beds at Deoli, near Assansol. Jour. Asiatic Soc., Bengal, v.22, pp.215–217.Google Scholar
  7. Carroll, R.L. (1988) Vertebrate Palaeontology and Evolution. Publisher W.H. Freeman & Co., 698p.Google Scholar
  8. Crompton, A.W. and Jenkins, F.A. Jr. (1979) Origin of mammals. In: J.A. Lillegraven, Z.K. Jaworowska and A. Clemens (Ed.), Mesozoic Mammals: the first two-third of the mammalian history. Berkeley, University, California Press.Google Scholar
  9. Crompton, A.W. and Luo, Z.X. (1993) Relationships of the Liassic mammals Sinoconodon, Morganucodon and Dinnetherium. In: F.S. Szalay, M.J. Novacek and M.C. McKenna (Eds.), Mammal Phylogeny (Volume I) Mesozoic differentiation, multituberculates, monotremes, early therians and marsupials. Springer-Verlag, New York, pp.30–44.Google Scholar
  10. Groenewald, G.H. and Kitching, J.W. (1995) Biostratigraphy of the Lystrosaurus Assemblage Zone. South African Committee for Stratigraphy and Biostratigraphy Series 1, pp.35–39.Google Scholar
  11. Gupta, A. (2007) Fish remains from the Panchet formation, W.B. — New Find. News Geol. Surv. India, (CHQ), v.38(1), pp.26–27.Google Scholar
  12. Gupta, A. (2009) Ichthyofauna of the Lower Triassic Panchet Formation, Damodar valley basin, West Bengal, and its implications. Indian Jour. Geosci., v.63(3), pp.275–286.Google Scholar
  13. Huxley, T.H. (1865) On a collection of vertebrate fossil from Panchet rocks, Raniganj coalfield. Palaeontologica Indica Series, v.4,1(1), pp.2–24.Google Scholar
  14. Kemp, T.S. (1979) The primitive cynodont Procynosuchus: functional anatomy of the skull and relationships. Phil. Trans. Royal Soc. London, v.B285, pp.73–122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Lucas, S.G. (1998) Global Triassic tetrapod biostratigraphy and biochronology. Palaeogeo., Palaeoclimat., Palaeoeco., v.143, pp.345–382.Google Scholar
  16. Lucas, S.G. (1999) A tetrapod based Triassic Time Scale. Albertiana, v.21(3), pp.1–8.Google Scholar
  17. Lydekker, R. (1881) Note on some Gondwana vertebrates. Rec. Geol. Surv. India, v.14, pp.174–178.Google Scholar
  18. Martinella, A.G., Bonaparte, J.F., Schultz, C.L. and Robert, R. (2005) A new tritheledontid (Therapsida, Eucynodontia) from the Late Triassic of Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil) cynodonts. Ameghiana, v.42(1), pp.191–208.Google Scholar
  19. Martinez, R.N., May, C.L. and Forster, C.A. (1996) A new carnivorous cynodont from the Ischiguslasto Formation (Late Triassic, Argentina) with comments on eucynodont phylogeny. Jour. Vertebrate Palaeont., v.16, pp.271–284.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Nath, T.T. and Yadagiri, P. (2007) A new mammal like reptile (Cynodonta) from the Upper Triassic Maleri Formation of Pranhita-Godavari Valley, Andhra Pradesh. Jour. Geol. Soc. India, v.69, pp.57–60.Google Scholar
  21. Osborn, H.F. (1903) On the primary division of the Reptilia, into two subclasses, Synopsida and Diapsida. Science, v.17, pp.275–276.Google Scholar
  22. Owen, R. (1861) Palaeontology or a systematic summary of extinct animals and their geological remains. Edinburgh: A & C, 2nd Edn., Black. pp.270–275.Google Scholar
  23. Romer, A.S. (1970) The Chanares (Argentina) Triassic reptile fauna. VI. A cynodont with an incipient squamosal — dentary articulation. Breviora, v.344, pp.1–8.Google Scholar
  24. Rubidge, B.S. (1995) Biostratigraphy of the Baeufort Group (Karoo Supergroup). Pectoria: South African Committee for Stratigraphy, Biostratigraphic series 1.Google Scholar
  25. Satsangi, P.P. (1987) The vertebrate faunas of the Permian and Lower Triassic sequence of India. In: Mesozoic Gondwana Vertebrates. Geol. Surv. India Spec. Publ. v.11, pp.165–178.Google Scholar
  26. Shapiro, M.D. and Jenkins, F.A. Jr. (2001) A cynodont from the Upper Triassic of East Greenland: tooth replacement and double-rootedness. Bull. Museum Comparative Zoology, Harvard University, v.156, pp.49–58.Google Scholar
  27. Shubin, N.H., Crompton, A.W., Sues, H.D. and Olsen, P.E. (1991) New fossil evidence on the sister-group of mammals and early Mesozoic faunal distribution. Science, v.251, pp.1063–1065.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Sues, H.D. and Boy, J.A. (1988) A procynosuchid cynodont from central Europe. Nature, v.331, pp.523–524.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Tatarinov, L.P. (2004) Late Permian theriodonts (Reptilia) from the Gorokhovetz locality (Russia, Vladimir region). Palaeontological Jour., v.38, pp.81–83.Google Scholar
  30. Tripathi, C. (1962) On the remains of Lystrosaurus from the Panchet rocks of Raniganj coalfield. Rec. Geol. Surv. India, v.89(2), pp.407–419.Google Scholar
  31. Tripathi, C. and Satsangi, P.P. (1963) Lystrosaurus fauna from Panchet Series of Raniganj coalfield. Palaeontologica Indica (N.S.), v.37, pp.1–53.Google Scholar
  32. Wilford, J.N. (1982) Standing there at a turning point in evolution; is a reptile on the verge of being a mammal? The New York Times, Nov.2.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Geological Society of India 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Op: Orissa, Nayapalli, Unit VIIIGeological Survey of IndiaBhubaneswarIndia
  2. 2.Palaeontology Division — IGeological Survey of IndiaKolkataIndia

Personalised recommendations