Journal of Earth Science

, Volume 30, Issue 1, pp 131–141 | Cite as

Ore-Forming Fluids Characteristics and Metallogenesis of the Anjing Hitam Pb-Zn Deposit in Northern Sumatra, Indonesia

  • Chaowen Huang
  • Gaofeng DuEmail author
  • Huajun Jiang
  • Jianfeng Xie
  • Daohan Zha
  • Huan Li
  • Chun-Kit Lai


The Anjing Hitam Pb-Zn deposit in northern Sumatra (Indonesia) is one of the largest Pb-Zn deposits in the region. The stratiform orebodies are mainly hosted in the middle member of the Carboniferous-Permian Kluet Formation of the Tapanuli Group. Mineral paragenesis and crosscutting relationships suggest a two-stage Pb-Zn mineralization: (I) sedimentary and (II) hydrothermal mineralization. Ore-related calcite from both stages I and II contains mainly liquid- and gas-liquid two-phase-type fluid inclusions (FI). For stage I ore-forming fluids, FI homogenization temperatures (Th) are 105 to 199 °C, and the salinities are 9.6 wt.% to 16.6 wt.% NaCleqiv, reflecting low temperature and medium-low salinity; whereas in stage II, the Th (206 to 267 °C) and salinity (19.0 wt.% to 22.5 wt.% NaCleqiv) are considerably higher. Fluid inclusion and C-O isotope characteristics suggest that the stage I ore-forming fluids were mainly derived from a mixture of seawater and magmatic fluids (probably from deep-lying plutons), whereas the stage II ore-forming fluids were likely magmatic-derived with wall rock input. We propose that the Anjing Hitam deposit was a Carboniferous exhalative sedimentary (SEDEX) deposit overprinted by the Pleistocene vein-style magmatic-hydrothermal mineralization.

Key words

Anjing Hitam SEDEX C-O isotopes fluid inclusion Sumatra Indonesia 


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We gratefully acknowledge the anonymous reviewers for their critical comments and constructive suggestions, which have improved the quality of the paper greatly. This study was financially supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (No. 2014CB440901). The final publication is available at Springer via

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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Key Laboratory of Metallogenic Prediction of Nonferrous Metals and Geological Environment Monitoring, Ministry of Education, School of Geosciences and Info-PhysicsCentral South UniversityChangshaChina
  2. 2.Geological Survey of Anhui ProvinceHefeiChina
  3. 3.School of Earth and Space SciencesUniversity of Science and Technology of ChinaHefeiChina
  4. 4.Research Institute of Hunan Provincial Nonfenous Metals Geological Exploration BureauChangshaChina
  5. 5.Hunan Key Laboratory of Land Resources Evaluation and UtilizationChangshaChina
  6. 6.Faculty of ScienceUniversiti Brunei DarussalamGadongBrunei Darussalam
  7. 7.Centre of Excellence in Ore Deposits (CODES)University of TasmaniaHobartAustralia

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