Advertisement

Journal of Earth Science

, Volume 28, Issue 5, pp 874–887 | Cite as

Spontaneous imbibition of water and determination of effective contact angles in the Eagle Ford Shale Formation using neutron imaging

  • Victoria H. DiStefano
  • Michael C. Cheshire
  • Joanna McFarlane
  • Lindsay M. Kolbus
  • Richard E. Hale
  • Edmund Perfect
  • Hassina Z. Bilheux
  • Louis J. Santodonato
  • Daniel S. Hussey
  • David L. Jacobson
  • Jacob M. LaManna
  • Philip R. Bingham
  • Vitaliy Starchenko
  • Lawrence M. Anovitz
Articles

Abstract

Understanding of fundamental processes and prediction of optimal parameters during the horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing process results in economically effective improvement of oil and natural gas extraction. Although modern analytical and computational models can capture fracture growth, there is a lack of experimental data on spontaneous imbibition and wettability in oil and gas reservoirs for the validation of further model development. In this work, we used neutron imaging to measure the spontaneous imbibition of water into fractures of Eagle Ford shale with known geometries and fracture orientations. An analytical solution for a set of nonlinear second-order differential equations was applied to the measured imbibition data to determine effective contact angles. The analytical solution fit the measured imbibition data reasonably well and determined effective contact angles that were slightly higher than static contact angles due to effects of in-situ changes in velocity, surface roughness, and heterogeneity of mineral surfaces on the fracture surface. Additionally, small fracture widths may have retarded imbibition and affected model fits, which suggests that average fracture widths are not satisfactory for modeling imbibition in natural systems.

Key Words

spontaneous imbibition effective contact angle neutron imaging Eagle Ford shale rock fractures 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Notes

Acknowledgments

This work was supported as part of the Center for Nanoscale Controls on Geologic CO2 (NCGC), an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Basic Energy Sciences (No. DE-AC02-05CH11231). Victoria H. DiStefano acknowledges a graduate fellowship through the Bredesen Center for Interdisciplinary Research at the University of Tennessee. Vitaliy Starchenko was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Chemical Sciences, Geosciences, and Biosciences Division. Edmund Perfect’s research was sponsored by the Army Research Laboratory (No. W911NF-16-1-0043). The views and conclusions contained in this document are those of the authors and should not be interpreted as representing the official policies, either expressed or implied, of the Army Research Laboratory or the U.S. Government. The U.S. government is authorized to reproduce and distribute reprints for government purposes notwithstanding any copyright notation herein. We acknowledge the support of the National Institute of Standards and Technology, U.S. Department of Commerce, in providing the neutron research facilities used in this work. A portion of this research used resources at the High Flux Isotope Reactor, a DOE Office of Science User Facility operated by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. We would also like to thank Andrew Kolbus, Salesforce, Robert Brese, UTK & ORNL, and Xiaojuan Zhu, Office of Information Technology at UTK, for assistance with Python, the Keyence VR-3100, and MATLAB, respectively. The final publication is available at Springer via https://doi.org/10.1007/s12583-017-0801-1.

References Cited

  1. Abdallah, W., Buckley, J., Carnegie, A., et al., 2007. Fundamentals of Wettability. Schlumberger Oilfield Review, 19(2): 44–61Google Scholar
  2. Andrew, M., Bijeljic, B., Blunt, M. J., 2014. Pore-Scale Contact Angle Measurements at Reservoir Conditions Using X-Ray Microtomography. Advances in Water Resources, 68: 24–31. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.advwatres.2014.02.014CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Anovitz, L. M., Cole, D. R., Sheets, J. M., et al., 2015. Effects of Maturation on Multiscale (Nanometer to Millimeter) Porosity in the Eagle Ford Shale. Interpretation, 3(3): SU59–SU70. https://doi.org/10.1190/int-2014-0280.1CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Benavente, D., Lock, P., Angeles Garcia Del Cura, M., et al., 2002. Predicting the Capillary Imbibition of Porous Rocks from Microstructure. Transport in Porous Media, 49(1): 59–76CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Brittin, W. E., 1946. Liquid Rise in a Capillary Tube. Journal of Applied Physics, 17(1): 37–44. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.1707633CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Broseta, D., Tonnet, N., Shah, V., 2012. Are Rocks still Water-Wet in the Presence of Dense CO2 or H2S?. Geofluids, 12(4): 280–294. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-8123.2012.00369.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Cai, J. C., Perfect, E., Cheng, C. L., et al., 2014. Generalized Modeling of Spontaneous Imbibition Based on Hagen-Poiseuille Flow in Tortuous Capillaries with Variably Shaped Apertures. Langmuir, 30(18): 5142–5151. https://doi.org/10.1021/la5007204CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Cai, J. C., Yu, B. M., 2011. A Discussion of the Effect of Tortuosity on the Capillary Imbibition in Porous Media. Transport in Porous Media, 89(2): 251–263. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11242-011-9767-0CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Cai, J. C., Yu, B. M., Mei, M. F., et al., 2010a. Capillary Rise in a Single Tortuous Capillary. Chinese Physics Letters, 27(5): 054701. https://doi.org/10.1088/0256-307x/27/5/054701CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Cai, J. C., Yu, B. M., Zou, M. Q., et al., 2010b. Fractal Characterization of Spontaneous Co-Current Imbibition in Porous Media. Energy & Fuels, 24(3): 1860–1867. https://doi.org/10.1021/ef901413pCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Chen, C., Wan, J. M., Li, W. Z., et al., 2015. Water Contact Angles on Quartz Surfaces under Supercritical CO2 Sequestration Conditions: Experimental and Molecular Dynamics Simulation Studies. International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control, 42: 655–665. https://doi.org/10.13039/501100001809CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Cheng, C. L., Perfect, E., Donnelly, B., et al., 2015. Rapid Imbibition of Water in Fractures within Unsaturated Sedimentary Rock. Advances in Water Resources, 77: 82–89. https://doi.org/10.13039/100006151CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Cheng, Y. M., 2012. Impact of Water Dynamics in Fractures on the Performance of Hydraulically Fractured Wells in Gas-Shale Reservoirs. Journal of Canadian Petroleum Technology, 51(2): 143–151. https://doi.org/10.2118/127863-paCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Dreyer, M., Delgado, A., Path, H. J., 1994. Capillary Rise of Liquid between Parallel Plates under Microgravity. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, 163(1): 158–168. https://doi.org/10.1006/jcis.1994.1092CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Dubiel, R. F., Pitman, J. K., Pearson, O. N., et al., 2012. Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas Resources in Conventional and Continuous Petroleum Systems in the Upper Cretaceous Eagle Ford Group, US Gulf Coast region. Vol. No. 2012-3003. US Geological Survey, 2011, Reston, VAGoogle Scholar
  16. Ergene, S. M., 2014. Lithologic heterogeneity of the Eagle Ford Formation, South Texas: [Dissertation]. The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TexasGoogle Scholar
  17. Fischer, C., Gaupp, R., 2005. Change of Black Shale Organic Material Surface Area during Oxidative Weathering: Implications for Rock-Water Surface Evolution. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 69(5): 1213–1224. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gca.2004.09.021CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Gao, L. C., McCarthy, T. J., 2007. How Wenzel and Cassie were Wrong. Langmuir, 23(7): 3762–3765. https://doi.org/10.1021/la062634aCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Gao, Z. Y., Hu, Q. H., 2016. Wettability of Mississippian Barnett Shale Samples at Different Depths: Investigations from Directional Spontaneous Imbibition. AAPG Bulletin, 100(1): 101–114. https://doi.org/10.1306/09141514095CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Hamraoui, A., Nylander, T., 2002. Analytical Approach for the Lucas–Washburn Equation. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, 250(2): 415–421. https://doi.org/10.1006/jcis.2002.8288CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Hamraoui, A., Thuresson, K., Nylander, T., et al., 2000. Can a Dynamic Contact Angle be Understood in Terms of a Friction Coefficient?. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, 226(2): 199–204. https://doi.org/10.1006/jcis.2000.6830CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Handy, L., 1960. Determination of Effective Capillary Pressures for Porous Media from Imbibition Data. Pet. Trans. AIME, 219(7): 75–80Google Scholar
  23. Hardy, W. B., 1922. Historical Notes Upon Surface Energy and Forces of Short Range. Nature, 109(2734): 375–378. https://doi.org/10.1038/109375a0CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Hassanein, R., Meyer, H. O., Carminati, A., et al., 2006. Investigation of Water Imbibition in Porous Stone by Thermal Neutron Radiography. Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, 39(19): 4284–4291. https://doi.org/10.1088/0022-3727/39/19/023CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. International Organization for Standardization, 1997. Geometrical Product Specifications (GPS)—Surface Texture: Profile Method—Terms, Definitions and Surface Texture Parameters. International Organization for Standardization, Geneva, SwitzerlandGoogle Scholar
  26. Javaheri, A., Dehghanpour, H., Wood, J. M., 2017. Tight Rock Wettability and Its Relationship to Other Petrophysical Properties: A Montney Case Study. Journal of Earth Science, 28(2): 381–390. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12583-017-0725-9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Joos, P., van Remoortere, P., Bracke, M., 1990. The Kinetics of Wetting in a Capillary. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, 136(1): 189–197. https://doi.org/10.1016/0021-9797(90)90089-7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Jurin, J., 1717. An Account of Some Experiments Shown before the Royal Society: With an Enquiry into the Cause of the Ascent and Suspension of Water in Capillary Tubes. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, 30(351–363): 739–747. https://doi.org/10.1098/rstl.1717.0026Google Scholar
  29. Kang, M., Perfect, E., Cheng, C. L., et al., 2013. Diffusivity and Sorptivity of Berea Sandstone Determined Using Neutron Radiography. Vadose Zone Journal, 12(3). https://doi.org/10.2136/vzj2012.0135Google Scholar
  30. Li, K. W., 2007. Scaling of Spontaneous Imbibition Data with Wettability Included. Journal of Contaminant Hydrology, 89(3/4): 218–230. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jconhyd.2006.09.009CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Lucas, R., 1918. Rate of Capillary Ascension of Liquids. Kolloid Z, 23(15): 15–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Mamontov, E., Vlcek, L., Wesolowski, D. J., et al., 2007. Dynamics and Structure of Hydration Water on Rutile and Cassiterite Nanopowders Studied by Quasielastic Neutron Scattering and Molecular Dynamics Simulations. The Journal of Physical Chemistry C, 111(11): 4328–4341. https://doi.org/10.1021/jp067242rCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Mamontov, E., Vlcek, L., Wesolowski, D. J., et al., 2009. Suppression of the Dynamic Transition in Surface Water at Low Hydration Levels: A Study of Water on Rutile. Physical Review E, 79(5): 051504. https://doi.org/10.1103/physreve.79.051504CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Mamontov, E., Wesolowski, D. J., Vlcek, L., et al., 2008. Dynamics of Hydration Water on Rutile Studied by Backscattering Neutron Spectroscopy and Molecular Dynamics Simulation. The Journal of Physical Chemistry C, 112(32): 12334–12341. https://doi.org/10.1021/jp711965xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Middleton, M., Li, K., de Beer, F., 2005. Spontaneous Imbibition Studies of Australian Reservoir Rocks with Neutron Radiography. Paper Presented at the SPE Western Regional Meeting, Society of Petroleum Engineers, Irvine, CaliforniaCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Murphy, W. M., Oelkers, E. H., Lichtner, P. C., 1989. Surface Reaction Versus Diffusion Control of Mineral Dissolution and Growth Rates in Geochemical Processes. Chemical Geology, 78(3/4): 357–380. https://doi.org/10.1016/0009-2541(89)90069-7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Penny, G. S., Ripley, H. E., Conway, M. W., et al., 1984. The Control and Modelling of Fluid Leak-off during Hydraulic Fracturing. Annual Technical Meeting, Petroleum Society of Canada, Calgary, AlbertaCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Perfect, E., Cheng, C. L., Kang, M., et al., 2014. Neutron Imaging of Hydrogen-Rich Fluids in Geomaterials and Engineered Porous Media: A Review. Earth-Science Reviews, 129: 120–135. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.earscirev.2013.11.012CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Pordel Shahri, M., Jamialahmadi, M., Shadizadeh, S. R., 2012. New Normalization Index for Spontaneous Imbibition. Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering, 82/83: 130–139. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.petrol.2012.01.017CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Rietveld, H. M., 1969. A Profile Refinement Method for Nuclear and Magnetic Structures. Journal of Applied Crystallography, 2(2): 65–71. https://doi.org/10.1107/s0021889869006558CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Rodríguez-Valverde, M. Á., Tirado Miranda, M., 2010. Derivation of Jurin’s Law Revisited. European Journal of Physics, 32(1): 49–54. https://doi.org/10.1088/0143-0807/32/1/005CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Schneider, C. A., Rasband, W. S., Eliceiri, K. W., 2012. NIH Image to ImageJ: 25 Years of Image Analysis. Nature Methods, 9(7): 671–675. https://doi.org/10.1038/nmeth.2089CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Standnes, D. C., 2010. Scaling Group for Spontaneous Imbibition Including Gravity. Energy & Fuels, 24(5): 2980–2984. https://doi.org/10.1021/ef901563pCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Swinehart, D. F., 1962. The Beer-Lambert Law. Journal of Chemical Education, 39(7): 333. https://doi.org/10.1021/ed039p333CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Tokunaga, T. K., Wan, J., 2013. Capillary Pressure and Mineral Wettability Influences on Reservoir CO2 Capacity. Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry, 77(1): 481–503. https://doi.org/10.2138/rmg.2013.77.14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), 2017. Drilling Productivity Report. For Key Tight Oil and Shale Gas Regions. [2017-9-8] (2017-4). https://www.eia.gov/petroleum/drilling/archive/2017/04/#tabs-summary-2Google Scholar
  47. Wan, J. M., Kim, Y., Tokunaga, T. K., 2014. Contact Angle Measurement Ambiguity in Supercritical CO2-Water-Mineral Systems: Mica as an Example. International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control, 31: 128–137. https://doi.org/10.13039/100000015CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Washburn, E. W., 1921. The Dynamics of Capillary Flow. Physical Review, 17(3): 273–283. https://doi.org/10.1103/physrev.17.273CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Wenzel, R. N., 1936. Resistance of Solid Surfaces to Wetting by Water. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry, 28(8): 988–994. https://doi.org/10.1021/ie50320a024CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Xiao, Y., Yang, F. Z., Pitchumani, R., 2006. A Generalized Analysis of Capillary Flows in Channels. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, 298(2): 880–888. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcis.2006.01.005CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Yang, D. Y., Gu, Y., Tontiwachwuthikul, P., 2008. Wettability Determination of the Reservoir Brine—Reservoir Rock System with Dissolution of CO2 at High Pressures and Elevated Temperatures. Energy & Fuels, 22(1): 504–509. https://doi.org/10.1021/ef700383xCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© China University of Geosciences and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Victoria H. DiStefano
    • 1
    • 2
  • Michael C. Cheshire
    • 1
  • Joanna McFarlane
    • 3
  • Lindsay M. Kolbus
    • 4
    • 5
  • Richard E. Hale
    • 6
  • Edmund Perfect
    • 7
  • Hassina Z. Bilheux
    • 5
  • Louis J. Santodonato
    • 8
  • Daniel S. Hussey
    • 9
  • David L. Jacobson
    • 9
  • Jacob M. LaManna
    • 9
  • Philip R. Bingham
    • 10
  • Vitaliy Starchenko
    • 1
  • Lawrence M. Anovitz
    • 1
  1. 1.Physical Sciences Directorate, Chemical Sciences DivisionOak Ridge National LaboratoryOak RidgeUSA
  2. 2.Bredesen CenterUniversity of TennesseeKnoxvilleUSA
  3. 3.Energy & Environmental Sciences Directorate, Energy & Transportation Sciences DivisionOak Ridge National LaboratoryOak RidgeUSA
  4. 4.STEM Educator, SkatelandIndianapolisUSA
  5. 5.Neutron Sciences Directorate, Chemical and Engineering Materials DivisionOak Ridge National LaboratoryOak RidgeUSA
  6. 6.Nuclear Science & Engineering Directorate, Reactor & Nuclear Systems DivisionOak Ridge National LaboratoryOak RidgeUSA
  7. 7.Department of Earth and Planetary ScienceUniversity of TennesseeKnoxvilleUSA
  8. 8.Neutron Sciences Directorate, Instrument and Source DivisionOak Ridge National LaboratoryOak RidgeUSA
  9. 9.Physical Measurement LaboratoryNational Institute of Standards and TechnologyGaithersburgUSA
  10. 10.Energy & Environmental Sciences Directorate, Electrical & Electronics Systems Research DivisionOak Ridge National LaboratoryOak RidgeUSA

Personalised recommendations