Advertisement

Waste-to-Fuel Technology in Albania—How to Implement a Renewable Energy System in Europe’s Largest Onshore Oilfield

  • Besmir Buranaj Hoxha
  • Dael Dervishi
  • Kyle Sweeney
Article
  • 4 Downloads

Abstract

Albania has historically been known to have an active but challenging drilling activity that demands the most innovative technology to develop, predominantly, medium-heavy oil reservoirs. Although recent efforts have been made by the government to stimulate and expand the largest onshore European oilfield, technical and economical obstacles are prevalent. These obstacles make it difficult to fully develop reliable and profitable hydrocarbon bearing zones in a downturn economy, especially since Albanian oil can be costly to produce and refine. Due to these typical issues that affect many local energy sectors, many developed countries diversify their energy production to avoid strict dependency on crude oil. An emblematic and modern option that is extensively gaining popularity in Europe focuses on renewable energy from sophisticated recycling programs. Although Albania is a relatively “green” country when it pertains to its electricity production (97% hydropower and 3% fossil fuels), it has yet to develop energy-recycling programs that it can salvage for self-sustainable energy sources. The past years have seen a conscious revitalization and stimulation in the mentality of green economy in Albania. But, in comparison to the rest of “western Europe” that are leading world examples in efficient recycling, it is significantly lagging with initial strides just now focusing on aligning national legislations with current EU models. Furthermore, two crucial reasons that should motivate Albania to investigate new applications for energy recycling are: (1) alternatives to crude oil and petroleum products that can be supplemental and provide stable access to fossil fuels; (2) industrial and municipal recycling via waste management to reprocess waste and produce industrial raw material-spawning the emergence of a “circular economy” to develop the backbone needed to strengthen the industrial and manufacturing markets for a self-sustaining economy. Accordingly, in this paper, the topic that will be addressed, given the recent decrease in oil & gas prices, focuses on the Albanian energy sector’s capability to sustain and develop a supplementary recycling program via “waste-to-fuel” (WTF) technology (biofuels and/or inorganic waste). With the intent that it could function cooperatively with Albania’s active drilling program to mitigate dependency on a single fuel source and produce enough fossil fuel in an effective and sustainable manner.

Key words

renewable energy pyrolysis waste-to-fuel technology circular economy plastic-to-fuel alternative energy 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Notes

Acknowledgements

First, Besmir Buranaj Hoxha would like to thank his mentor, his father Burhan Hoxha, who has been continually supportive of his scientific and technical endeavors. Without his wisdom and guidance, this technical paper would have not been possible. Secondly, Besmir Buranaj Hoxha would like to thank Marton Herczeg from the European Institute of Innovation & Technology for his direction on waste management implementation into a circular economy model based on the European Commission program. Besmir Buranaj Hoxha would like to thank AKBN, especially Artan Leskoviku and Luan Nikolla, for their recurrent support to provide government data in the Oil & Gas sector. We would like to thank personally Ervin Shehaj at Green Line Albania for providing waste/littering information. Furthermore, we would like to thank Q. Sinaj Shpk for providing environmental data from the Albanian oilfields. Lastly, we would like to thank Dr. Zhien Zhang, editorial supervisor for Journal of Natural Gas Science and Engineering (JNGSE) for providing global plastic waste data & China waste management data. The final publication is available at Springer via https://doi.org/10.1007/s12583-017-0782-0.

Supplementary material

12583_2017_782_MOESM1_ESM.doc (1.9 mb)
Supplementary material, approximately 13.3 MB.

References

  1. Alcani, M., Dorri, A., 2013. Problems Related to Current Situation of Solid Waste Management in Albania. International Journal of Ecosystems and Ecology Science, 3(4): 697–704Google Scholar
  2. Alcani, M., Dorri, A., Hoxha, A., 2015. Some Issues of Municipal Solid Waste Management in Albania and Especially Tirana City. International Journal of Science Technology & Management, 4(1): 16Google Scholar
  3. American Chemical Society, 2017. Ridding the Oceans of Plastics by Turning the Waste into Valuable Fuel. (2017-4-3). https://www.acs.org/content/acs/en/pressroom/newsreleases/2017/april/ridding-the-oceansof-plastics-by-turning-the-waste-into-valuable-fuel.html
  4. ASTM D7544-12, 2017. Standard Specification for Pyrolysis Liquid Biofuel. ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PAGoogle Scholar
  5. Ballauri, A., 2002. Exploring in Structurally Complex Thrust Belt: Southwest Albania. AAPG Hedberg Conference, May 14–18, 2002, Palermo-Mondello, Sicily, ItalyGoogle Scholar
  6. Bankers, 2015. Annual Report-Albania Oil and Gas Summit 2015. Tirane, AlbaniaGoogle Scholar
  7. Barbullushi, R., 2013. Basin Evolution and Hydrocarbon Plays in Albania. AAPG 2013 European Regional Conference & Exhibition. April 8–10, 2013, Barcelona, SpainGoogle Scholar
  8. Bega, Z., 2010. Platform Carbonates Sub-Thrusts as Major Hydrocarbon Plays in NW Albania—Montenegro Region. 6th Workshop, ILP Task Force on Sedimentary Basins. November 9–11, 2010, TiranaGoogle Scholar
  9. Bega, Z., 2013a. Deep Seated Platform Carbonate Reservoirs as New Hydrocarbon Plays in the NW Albania-Montenegro Segment of the Adriatic Region. AAPG Conference. April 8–10, 2013, BarcelonaGoogle Scholar
  10. Bega, Z., 2013b. Exploration Opportunities in Albania—A Review of Recent Exploration Activities. EAGE, 7th congress Balkans Geophysical Society. Tirana, AlbaniaCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bennion, D. B., Mastmann, M., Moustakis, M. L., 2003. A Case Study of Foamy Oil Recovery in the Patos-Marinza Reservoir, Driza Sand, Albania. Journal of Canadian Petroleum Technology, 42(3): 8. https://doi.org/10.2118/03-03-01 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bino, T., 2012. A New Path for the Sustainable Development: A Green Economy for Albania. The United National Conference on Sustainable Development, RIO+20. https://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/content/documents/1014albanianationalreport.pdf Google Scholar
  13. Buçpapaj, B., 2009. Renewable Energy Potential in Albania. In: Department of Energy Technologies (DTE), Institute of Energy, Water & Environment (IGEWE) Polytechnic University of Tirana PUT, Tirana. 3–41Google Scholar
  14. Buçpapaj, B., 2011. Biomass Energy Potential in Albania. In: Department of Energy Technologies (DTE), Institute of Energy, Water & Environment (IGEWE) Polytechnic University of Tirana (PUT), Tirana. 3–21Google Scholar
  15. Buçpapaj, B., 2012. Albania: Tracing the Paths of Biomass Energy. Journal of Envorinemntal Scinece, Computer Science and Engineering Technology, 1(3): 316–328Google Scholar
  16. Curi, F., 1993. Oil Generation and Accumulation in the Albanian Ionian Basin. In: Spencer, A. M., ed., Generation, Accumulation and Production of Europe’s Hydrocarbons. EAPG, Special Publication. Springer, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  17. Darbord, C., 2015. The Refining Sector in Albania. ARMO Presentation at the Albanian Oil & Gas Summit 2015. March 2015, Tirane, AlbaniaGoogle Scholar
  18. Dedej, Z., 2012. Waste Management—Albania. In: McDonald, D., ed., Integrated Resources Management Plan (IRMP) for the Buna/Bojana Area. GWP-Med, PAP/RAC, UNESCO-IHP, Paris. 95–97Google Scholar
  19. Dervishi, D., 2015. How Albanian Legislation Facilitates the Exploration and Developments of Hydrocarbons. Presentation at Albania Oil & Gas Summit 2015. March 2015, Tirane, AlbaniaGoogle Scholar
  20. Dervishi, D., 2016. Exploration & Production Capabilities in Albania. An AKBN Report 2016. Energean Annual Report (2017). [2018-4-18]. https://www.energean.com Google Scholar
  21. European Commission & European Environmental Agency, 2016. European Commission & European Environmental Agency Annual Reports. http://ec.europa.eu/environment/circular-economy/index_en.htm European Union Country, 2017. Gasoline and Diesel Prices by Country. [2018-4-18].
  22. Frasheri, A., 2005. Geothermal Regime and Hydrocarbon Generation in the Albanides. Petroleum Geoscience, 11(4): 347–352. https://doi.org/10.1144/1354-079304-640 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Frasheri, A., Bushati, S., Bare, V., 2009. Geophysical Outlook on Structure of the Albanides. Journal of the Balkan Geophysical Society, 12(1): 9–30Google Scholar
  24. Graham Wall, B. R., Girbacea, R., Mesonjesi, A., et al., 2006. Evolution of Fracture and Fault-Controlled Fluid Pathways in Carbonates of the Albanides Fold-Thrust Belt. AAPG Bulletin, 90(8): 1227–1249. https://doi.org/10.1306/03280604014 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Gordani, L., 2015. Presentation at the Albanian Center for Energy Regulation & Conservation (ACERC). March, 2015, Tirane, AlbaniaGoogle Scholar
  26. Hallman, T., 2015. Update of Field Development of Patos-Marinza. Pan American Mature Fields Congress. USAGoogle Scholar
  27. Herczeg, M., Seyring, N., 2016. Assessment of Separate Collection in 28 Capitals of the EU. A study Funded by the EC and Written by the Copenhagen Research Institute & BiPro. IHS Cerca report to AlbPetrol, 2013.Google Scholar
  28. Ifti, O., 2016. The Vision, Priorities, Policies and Goals of the Albanian Government on Waste Management. 24th OSCE Economic and Environmental Forum, First Preparatory Meeting. January 25–26, 2016, Vienna, AustriaGoogle Scholar
  29. International Energy Agency, 2017. World Oil Report. [2018-4-18]. https://www.iea.org/weo2017/
  30. Jacobs, T., 2015. Reviving Europe’s Largest Onshore Oilfield. Journal of Petroleum Technology, 67(3): 70–74CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Jaupaj, O., Berdufi, I., Mitrushi, D., et al., 2011. Biomass Energy Production—Research Gaps and Trends. International Scientific Conference: Hydro Climate Resources—An Important Tool for a Sustainable Development of Albania. June 16, 2011, Tirana, AlbaniaGoogle Scholar
  32. Jaupaj, O., Lushaj, B., 2009. An Evaluation of Chapter 14 of EU Acquis Communautaire Energy Acquis, Albanian Law Approximation and Challenges. The 2nd International Conference on European Studies. November 6–7, Epoca University, Tirana Albania. 167–183Google Scholar
  33. Jaupaj, O., Lushaj, B., 2010. Albania General Status of Biomass and National Initiatives. International Bioenergy Symposium (Public) and 18-th European Biomass Conference & Exhibition. Brussels, Belgium and Lyon, FranceGoogle Scholar
  34. Jaupaj, O., Lushaj, B., 2011. Albania General Status of Biomass and National Initiatives ABES. In: CEUBIOM Decree. Tirana, AlbaniaGoogle Scholar
  35. Karaj, S., Rehl, T., Leis, H., et al., 2010. Analysis of Biomass Residues Potential for Electrical Energy Generation in Albania. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 14(1): 493–499. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2009.07.026 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Kodra, A., 2013. Municipal Waste Management in Albania. The European Environment Agency (EEA). November, 2013, Brussels, BelgiumGoogle Scholar
  37. Kotenev, M., 2014. The Hydrocarbon Potential of Albania. AAPG European Region Newsletter. March, 2014, Maxim, KotenevGoogle Scholar
  38. Kunwar, B., Cheng, H. N., Chandrashekaran, S. R., et al., 2016. Plastics to Fuel: A Review. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 54: 421–428. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2015.10.015 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Lico, E., Vito, S., Boci, I., et al., 2015. Situation of Plastic Waste Management in Albania Problems and Solutions According to European Directive. Journal of International Academic Research for Multidisciplinary, 3(2): 176–184Google Scholar
  40. Livesay, C., 2015. Europe’s Biggest Illegal Dump. Vice News. (2015-6-19) [2018-4-18]. https://news.vice.com/article/europes-biggest-illegal-dumpitalys-chernobyl-uncovered-in-mafia-heartland Google Scholar
  41. Lushaj, A., Gjoka, R., Lushaj, B., 2012. Renewable Energy Potentials of Albania. Renewable Energy for Young of the Balkan Peninsula. Durres, AlbaniaGoogle Scholar
  42. Lushaj, B., 2012a. Potentials from Renewable—Biomass in Albania. European Energy Conference. Maastricht, NetherlandsGoogle Scholar
  43. Lushaj, B., 2012b. Renewable Biomass: Suggestions and Proposed Alternatives. World Journal of Environmental Biosciences, 1(2): 100–110Google Scholar
  44. Marko, D., Moci, A., 1995. Oil Production History in Albania Oil Field and Their Prospective. In: 6th UNITAR Conference on Heavy Oils and Tar Sands. UNITAR, [S.l.]. 19–28Google Scholar
  45. Meço, S., Aliaj, S., Turku, I., 2000. Geology of Albania: Gebruder Borntraeger. Berlin, GermanyGoogle Scholar
  46. O'Brien, J., 2014. Here Comes the Sun: Albania Passes Law on Renewable Energy. [2018-4-18]. http://europeandcis.undp.org/ Google Scholar
  47. OCED, 2016. OCED Factbook 2015–2016: Economic, Environmental and Social Statistics. OECD Publishing, Paris. [2018-4-18]. https://doi.org/10.1787/factbook-2015-en
  48. Puka, E., 2015. Albpetrol Status Update in the Era before Privatization. Albania Oil & Gas Summit 2015. Tirane, AlbaniaGoogle Scholar
  49. Pyrocrat, 2016. Fundamentals of Pyrolysis Breakdown—Plastic to Oil. [2018-4-18]. http://pyrolysisplant.com/plastic-to-oil/
  50. Sejdini, B., Constantinescu, P., Piperi, T., 1994. Petroleum Exploration in Albania. In: Popescu, B. M., ed., Hydrocarbons of Eastern Central Europe. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. 1–27Google Scholar
  51. Shehu, F., Johnston, D., 1991. Albania has Active but Difficult Drilling Program. Oil & Gas Journal, 89: 46Google Scholar
  52. Slaybaugh, J., 2017. Garbage Day: Will Italy finally Take out Its Trash in the Land of Fires? Washington International Law Journal, 26(1): 179–207Google Scholar
  53. Stanford Recycling Research Institute, 2016. Frequently Asked Questions: Benefits of Recycling. Stanford University, Stanford. [2018-4-18]. https://lbre.stanford.edu/pssistanford-recycling/frequently-asked-questions/frequently-asked-questions-benefits-recycling
  54. Toromani, E., 2010. Potential of Biomass Energy in Albania. TiraneGoogle Scholar
  55. Toussaint, A., 2017. Plastics to Fuel Technology-Btg-btl. [2018-4-18]. https://www.btg-btl.com/en/technology Google Scholar
  56. Tushaj, V., 2016. AKBN Annual Report—Analiza Vjetore per Vitin 2016. [2018-4-18]. http://www.akbn.gov.al/ Google Scholar
  57. U.S. Energy Information Administration, 2016. International Energy Outlook, 2016. U.S. Department of Energy, Washington DC. [2018-4-18]. https://www.eia.gov/outlooks/ieo/pdf/exec_summ.pdf
  58. Weatherill, B., Seto, A. C., Gupta, S. K., et al., 2005. Cold Heavy Oil Production at Patos-Marinza, Albania. SPE International Thermal Operations and Heavy Oil Symposium, November 1–3, Calgary, Alberta, Canada. https://doi.org/0.2118/97992-MS Google Scholar
  59. Wongkhorsub, C., Chindaprasert, C., 2013. A Comparison of the Use of Pyrolysis Oils in Diesel Engine. Energy and Power Engineering, 5: 350–355. https://doi.org/10.4236/epe.2013.54B068 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Xhitoni, A., 2013. Renewable Energy Scenarios for Albania. [2018-4-18]. https://core.ac.uk/display/12980736 Google Scholar

Copyright information

© China University of Geosciences and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.PetroFluids LLCHoustonUSA
  2. 2.McCain InstituteWashingtonUSA
  3. 3.Fulbright Program & UNDPPrishtinaUSA

Personalised recommendations