The Journal of Physiological Sciences

, Volume 69, Issue 6, pp 799–811 | Cite as

Review of early development of near-infrared spectroscopy and recent advancement of studies on muscle oxygenation and oxidative metabolism

  • Takafumi HamaokaEmail author
  • Kevin K. McCully


Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) has become an increasingly valuable tool to monitor tissue oxygenation (Toxy) in vivo. Observations of changes in the absorption of light with Toxy have been recognized as early as 1876, leading to a milestone NIRS paper by Jöbsis in 1977. Changes in the absorption and scatting of light in the 700–850-nm range has been successfully used to evaluate Toxy. The most practical devices use continuous-wave light providing relative values of Toxy. Phase-modulated or pulsed light can monitor both absorption and scattering providing more accurate signals. NIRS provides excellent time resolution (~ 10 Hz), and multiple source–detector pairs can be used to provide low-resolution imaging. NIRS has been applied to a wide range of populations. Continued development of NIRS devices in terms of lower cost, better detection of both absorption and scattering, and smaller size will lead to a promising future for NIRS studies.


Muscle Oximetry Tissue oxygenation Oxidative metabolism Exercise 


Author contributions

TH wrote about early development of near-infrared spectroscopy and methodological section and organized throughout the manuscript. KKMC wrote about application of near-infrared spectroscopy to sports and clinical science.


This study was supported by JSPS KAKENHI Grant Number 15H03100, Japan.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

Takafumi Hamaoka declares that he has no conflict of interest. Kevin K. McCully is the President of Infrared Rx, Inc, and NIRS software company.

Ethical approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki Declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.


  1. 1.
    McCully KK, Hamaoka T (2000) Near-infrared spectroscopy: what can it tell us about oxygen saturation in skeletal muscle? Exerc Sport Sci Rev 28(3):123–127PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Boushel R, Langberg H, Olesen J, Gonzales-Alonzo J, Bülow J, Kjaer M (2001) Monitoring tissue oxygen availability with near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) in health and disease. Scand J Med Sci Sport 11(4):213–222CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Quaresima V, Lepanto R, Ferrari M (2003) The use of near infrared spectroscopy in sports medicine. J Sport Med Phys Fit 43(1):1–13Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Ferrari M, Mottola L, Quaresima V (2004) Principles, techniques, and limitations of near infrared spectroscopy. Can J Appl Physiol 29(4):463–487PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Hamaoka T, McCully KK, Quaresima V, Yamamoto K, Chance B (2007) Near-infrared spectroscopy/imaging for monitoring muscle oxygenation and oxidative metabolism in healthy and diseased humans. J Biomed Opt 2:62105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Ferrari M, Muthalib M, Quaresima V (2011) The use of near-infrared spectroscopy in understanding skeletal muscle physiology: recent developments. Philos Trans A Math Phys Eng Sci 369(1955):4577–4590PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Hamaoka T, McCully KK, Niwayama M, Chance B (2011) The use of muscle near-infrared spectroscopy in sport, health and medical sciences: recent developments. Philos Trans A Math Phys Eng Sci 369(1955):4591–4604PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Grassi B, Quaresima V (2016) Near-infrared spectroscopy and skeletal muscle oxidative function in vivo in health and disease: a review from an exercise physiology perspective. J Biomed Opt 21(9):091313PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Adami A, Rossiter HB (2018) Principles, insights, and potential pitfalls of the noninvasive determination of muscle oxidative capacity by near-infrared spectroscopy. J Appl Physiol 124(1):245–248PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Chung S, Nelson MD, Hamaoka T, Jacobs RA, Pearson J, Subudhi AW, Jenkins NT, Bartlett MF, Fitzgerald LF, Miehm JD, Kent JA, Lucero AA, Rowlands DS, Stoner L, McCully KK, Call J, Rodriguez-Miguelez P, Harris RA, Porcelli S, Rasica L, Marzorati M, Quaresima V, Ryan TE, Vernillo G, Millet GP, Malatesta D, Millet GY, Zuo L, Chuang CC (2018) Commentaries on viewpoint: principles, insights, and potential pitfalls of the noninvasive determination of muscle oxidative capacity by near-infrared spectroscopy. J Appl Physiol 124(1):249–255PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Wolf M, Ferrari M, Quaresima V (2007) Progress of near-infrared spectroscopy and topography for brain and muscle clinical applications. J Biomed Opt 12(6):062104PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Rooks CR, Thom NJ, McCully KK, Dishman RK (2010) Effects of incremental exercise on cerebral oxygenation measured by near-infrared spectroscopy: a systematic review. Prog Neurobiol 92(2):134–150PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Perrey S, Ferrari M (2018) Muscle oximetry in sports science: a systematic review. Sport Med 48(3):597–616CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Willingham TB, McCully KK (2017) In vivo assessment of mitochondrial dysfunction in clinical populations using near-infrared spectroscopy. Front Physiol 8:689PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Vierordt K (1876) Die quantitative Spektralanalyse in ihrer Anwendung auf Physiologie, Physik, Chemie und Technologie. H Lauppsche Buchhandlung, TübingenGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Drabkin DL, Austin JH (1932) Spectrophotometric studies: I. Spectrophotometric constants for common hemoglobin derivatives in human, dog, and rabbit blood. J Biol Chem 98:719–733Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Millikan GA (1933) A simple photoelectric colorimeter. J Physiol 79(2):152–157PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Severinghaus JW (2007) Takuo Aoyagi: discovery of pulse oximetry. Anesth Analg 105(6):S1–S4PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Jöbsis FF (1977) Noninvasive, infrared monitoring of cerebral and myocardial oxygen sufficiency and circulatory parameters. Science 198(4323):1264–1267PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Mills E, Jöbsis FF (1970) Simultaneous measurement of cytochrome a3 reduction and chemoreceptor afferent activity in the carotid body. Nature 225(5238):1147–1149PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Jöbsis FF (1999) Discovery of the near-infrared window into the body and the early development of near-infrared spectroscopy. J Biomed Opt 4(4):392–396CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Kreisman NR, Sick TJ, LaManna JC, Rosenthal M (1981) Local tissue oxygen tension-cytochrome a, a3 redox relationships in rat cerebral cortex in vivo. Brain Res 218(1–2):161–174PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Hoshi Y, Hazeki O, Kakihana Y, Tamura M (1997) Redox behavior of cytochrome oxidase in the rat brain measured by near-infrared spectroscopy. J Appl Physiol 83(6):1842–1848PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Chance B, Nioka S, Kent J, McCully K, Fountain M, Greenfeld R, Holtom G (1988) Time-resolved spectroscopy of hemoglobin and myoglobin in resting and ischemic muscle. Anal Biochem 174(2):698–707PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Ferrari M, Quaresima V (2012) A brief review on the history of human functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) development and fields of application. Neuroimage 63(2):921–935PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Niwayama M, Yamamoto K, Kohata D, Hirai K, Kudo N, Hamaoka T, Kime R, Katsumura T (2002) A 200-channel imaging system of muscle oxygenation using CW near-infrared spectroscopy. IEICE Trans Inf Syst E85-D:115–123Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Yamamoto K, Niwayama M, Kohata D, Kudo N, Hamaoka T, Kime R, Katsumura T (2001) Functional imaging of muscle oxygenation using 200-channel CW-NIRS system. Proc SPIE 4250:142–152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Quaresima V, Colier WN, van der Sluijs M, Ferrari M (2001) Nonuniform quadriceps O2 consumption revealed by near infrared multipoint measurements. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 285(4):1034–1039PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Miura H, McCully K, Nioka S, Chance B (2004) Relationship between muscle architectural features and oxygenation status determined by near infrared device. Eur J Appl Physiol 91(2–3):273–278PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    McCully KK (2010) The influence of passive stretch on muscle oxygen saturation. Adv Exp Med Biol 662:317–322PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Shiga T, Tanabe K, Nakase Y, Shida T, Chance B (1995) Development of a portable tissue oximeter using near infra-red spectroscopy. Med Biol Eng Comput 33(4):622–626PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Buchheit M, Laursen PB, Ahmaidi S (2009) Effect of prior exercise on pulmonary O2 uptake and estimated muscle capillary blood flow kinetics during moderate-intensity field running in men. J Appl Physiol 107(2):460–470PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Niwayama M, Sone S, Murata H, Yoshida H, Shinohara S (2007) Errors in muscle oxygenation measurement using spatially-resolved NIRS and its correction. J Jpn Coll Angiol 47:17–20Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Crum EM, O’Connor WJ, Van Loo L, Valckx M, Stannard SR (2017) Validity and reliability of the Moxy oxygen monitor during incremental cycling exercise. Eur J Sport Sci 17(8):1037–1043PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Farzam P, Starkweather Z, Franceschini MA (2018) Validation of a novel wearable, wireless technology to estimate oxygen levels and lactate threshold power in the exercising muscle. Physiol Rep 6(7):e13664PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Seiyama A, Hazeki O, Tamura M (1987) Simultaneous measurement of haemoglobin oxygenation of brain and skeletal muscle of rat in vivo by near-infrared spectrophotometry. Adv Exp Med Biol 215:291–295PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Ferrari M, Wei Q, Carraresi L, De Blasi RA, Zaccanti G (1992) Time-resolved spectroscopy of the human forearm. J Photochem Photobiol B 16(2):141–153PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Ferreira LF, Hueber DM, Barstow TJ (2007) Effects of assuming constant optical scattering on measurements of muscle oxygenation by near-infrared spectroscopy during exercise. J Appl Physiol 102(1):358–367PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Hamaoka T, Katsumura T, Murase N, Nishio S, Osada T, Sako T, Higuchi H, Kurosawa Y, Shimomitsu T, Miwa M, Chance B (2000) Quantification of ischemic muscle deoxygenation by near infrared time-resolved spectroscopy. J Biomed Opt 5(1):102–105PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Quaresima V, Ferrari M, Franceschini MA, Hoimes ML, Fantini S (2004) Spatial distribution of vastus lateralis blood flow and oxyhemoglobin saturation measured at the end of isometric quadriceps contraction by multichannel near-infrared spectroscopy. J Biomed Opt 9(2):413–420PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Yu G, Durduran T, Lech G, Zhou C, Chance B, Mohler ER 3rd, Yodh AG (2005) Time-dependent blood flow and oxygenation in human skeletal muscles measured with noninvasive near-infrared diffuse optical spectroscopies. J Biomed Opt 10(2):024027PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Wang DJ, Nioka S, Wang Z, Leigh JS, Chance B (1993) NMR visibility studies of N-delta proton of proximal histidine in deoxyhemoglobin in lysed and intact red cells. Magn Reson Med 30(6):759–763PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Tran TK, Sailasuta N, Kreutzer U, Hurd R, Chung Y, Mole P, Kuno S, Jue T (1999) Comparative analysis of NMR and NIRS measurements of intracellular PO2 in human skeletal muscle. Am J Physiol 276(6 Pt 2):R1682–R1690PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Davis ML, Barstow TJ (2013) Estimated contribution of hemoglobin and myoglobin to near infrared spectroscopy. Respir Physiol Neurobiol 186(2):180–187PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Marcinek DJ, Amara CE, Matz K, Conley KE, Schenkman KA (2007) Wavelength shift analysis: a simple method to determine the contribution of hemoglobin and myoglobin to in vivo optical spectra. Appl Spectrosc 61(6):665–669PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Bendahan D, Chatel B, Jue T (2017) Comparative NMR and NIRS analysis of oxygen-dependent metabolism in exercising finger flexor muscles. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 313(6):R740–R753PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Seiyama A, Hazeki O, Tamura M (1988) Noninvasive quantitative analysis of blood oxygenation in rat skeletal muscle. J Biochem 103(3):419–424PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Masuda K, Takakura H, Furuichi Y, Iwase S, Jue T (2010) NIRS measurement of O2 dynamics in contracting blood and buffer perfused hindlimb muscle. Adv Exp Med Biol 662:323–328PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Takakura H, Masuda K, Hashimoto T, Iwase S, Jue T (2010) Quantification of myoglobin deoxygenation and intracellular partial pressure of O2 during muscle contraction during haemoglobin-free medium perfusion. Exp Physiol 95(5):630–640PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Chance B, Dait MT, Zhang C, Hamaoka T, Hagerman F (1992) Recovery from exercise-induced desaturation in the quadriceps muscles of elite competitive rowers. Am J Physiol 262:C766–C775PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Gunadi S, Leung TS, Elwell CE, Tachtsidis I (2014) Spatial sensitivity and penetration depth of three cerebral oxygenation monitors. Biomed Opt Express 5(9):2896–2912PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Chance B, Leigh JS, Miyake H, Smith DS, Nioka S, Greenfeld R, Finander M, Kaufmann K, Levy W, Young M, Cohen P, Yoshida H, Boretsky R (1988) Comparison of time-resolved and -unresolved measurements of deoxyhemoglobin in brain. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 85(14):4971–4975PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Cui W, Kumar C, Chance B (1991) Experimental study of migration depth for the photons measured at sample surface. I. Time resolved spectroscopy and imaging. Proc SPIE Int Soc Opt Eng 1431:180–191Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Wassenaar EB, Van den Brand JG (2005) Reliability of near-infrared spectroscopy in people with dark skin pigmentation. J Clin Monit Comput 19(3):195–199PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Duncan A, Meek JH, Clemence M, Elwell CE, Tyszczuk L, Cope M, Delpy DT (1995) Optical pathlength measurements on adult head, calf and forearm and the head of the newborn infant using phase resolved optical spectroscopy. Phys Med Biol 40(2):295–304PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Franceschini MA, Boas DA, Zourabian A, Diamond SG, Nadgir S, Lin DW, Moore JB, Fantini S (2002) Near-infrared spiroximetry: noninvasive measurements of venous saturation in piglets and human subjects. J Appl Physiol 92(1):372–384PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Wolf M, Wolf U, Choi JH, Gupta R, Safonova LP, Paunescu LA, Michalos A, Gratton E (2002) Functional frequency-domain near-infrared spectroscopy detects fast neuronal signal in the motor cortex. Neuroimage 17(4):1868–1875PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Fishkin JB, So PT, Cerussi AE, Fantini S, Franceschini MA, Gratton E (1995) Frequency-domain method for measuring spectral properties in multiple-scattering media: methemoglobin absorption spectrum in a tissuelike phantom. Appl Opt 34(7):1143–1155PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Endo T, Kime R, Fuse S, Watanabe T, Murase N, Kurosawa Y, Hamaoka T (2018) Evaluation of functional hyperemia using NIRTRS without the influence of fat layer thickness. Adv Exp Med Biol 1072:97–101PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Ohmae E, Nishio S, Oda M, Suzuki H, Suzuki T, Ohashi K, Koga S, Yamashita Y, Watanabe H (2014) Sensitivity correction for the influence of the fat layer on muscle oxygenation and estimation of fat thickness by time-resolved spectroscopy. J Biomed Opt 19(6):067005PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Okushima D, Poole DC, Rossiter HB, Barstow TJ, Kondo N, Ohmae E, Koga S (2015) Muscle deoxygenation in the quadriceps during ramp incremental cycling: Deep vs. superficial heterogeneity. J Appl Physiol 119(11):1313-1319PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Koga S, Poole DC, Fukuoka Y, Ferreira LF, Kondo N, Ohmae E, Barstow TJ (2011) Methodological validation of the dynamic heterogeneity of muscle deoxygenation within the quadriceps during cycle exercise. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 301(2):R534–R541PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Burtscher M, Nachbauer W, Wilber R (2011) The upper limit of aerobic power in humans. Eur J Appl Physiol 111(10):2625–2628PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Hellsten Y, Maclean D, Rådegran G, Saltin B, Bangsbo J (1998) Adenosine concentrations in the interstitium of resting and contracting human skeletal muscle. Circulation 98(1):6–8PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Gayeski TE, Honig CR (1983) Direct measurement of intracellular O2 gradients; role of convection and myoglobin. Adv Exp Med Biol 159:613–621PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Guezennec CY, Lienhard F, Louisy F, Renault G, Tusseau MH, Portero P (1991) In situ NADH laser fluorimetry during muscle contraction in humans. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol 63(1):36–42PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Gadian DG, Hoult DI, Radda GK, Seeley PJ, Chance B, Barlow C (1976) Phosphorus nuclear magnetic resonance studies on normoxic and ischemic cardiac tissue. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 73(12):4446–4448PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Chance B, Eleff S, Leigh JS Jr (1980) Noninvasive, nondestructive approaches to cell bioenergetics. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 77(12):7430–7434PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    McCully KK, Iotti S, Kendrick K, Wang Z, Posner JD, Leigh J Jr, Chance B (1994) Simultaneous in vivo measurements of HbO2 saturation and PCr kinetics after exercise in normal humans. J Appl Physiol 77(1):5–10PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Southern WM, Ryan TE, Kepple K, Murrow JR, Nilsson KR, McCully KK (2015) Reduced skeletal muscle oxidative capacity and impaired training adaptations in heart failure. Physiol Rep 3(4):e12353PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Esaki K, Hamaoka T, Rådegran G, Boushel R, Hansen J, Katsumura T, Haga S, Mizuno M (2005) Association between regional quadriceps oxygenation and blood oxygen saturation during normoxic one-legged dynamic knee extension. Eur J Appl Physiol 95(4):361–370PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Wilson JR, Mancini DM, McCully K, Ferraro N, Lanoce V, Chance B (1989) Noninvasive detection of skeletal muscle underperfusion with near-infrared spectroscopy in patients with heart failure. Circulation 80(6):1668–1674PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Mancini DM, Bolinger L, Li H, Kendrick K, Chance B, Wilson JR (1994) Validation of near-infrared spectroscopy in humans. J Appl Physiol 77(6):2740–2747PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Costes F, Barthélémy JC, Féasson L, Busso T, Geyssant A, Denis C (1996) Comparison of muscle near-infrared spectroscopy and femoral blood gases during steady-state exercise in humans. J Appl Physiol 80(4):1345–1350PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    MacDonald MJ, Tarnopolsky MA, Green HJ, Hughson RL (1999) Comparison of femoral blood gases and muscle near-infrared spectroscopy at exercise onset in humans. J Appl Physiol 86(2):687–693PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Van Beekvelt MC, Colier WN, Wevers RA, Van Engelen BG (2001) Performance of near-infrared spectroscopy in measuring local O2 consumption and blood flow in skeletal muscle. J Appl Physiol 90(2):511–519PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Hamaoka T, Iwane H, Shimomitsu T, Katsumura T, Murase N, Nishio S, Osada T, Kurosawa Y, Chance B (1996) Noninvasive measures of oxidative metabolism on working human muscles by near-infrared spectroscopy. J Appl Physiol 81(3):1410–1417PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Ryan TE, Southern WM, Reynolds MA, McCully KK (2013) A cross-validation of near-infrared spectroscopy measurements of skeletal muscle oxidative capacity with phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy. J Appl Physiol 115(12):1757–1766PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Cheatle TR, Potter LA, Cope M, Delpy DT, Coleridge Smith PD, Scurr JH (1991) Near-infrared spectroscopy in peripheral vascular disease. Br J Surg 78(4):405–408PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    De Blasi RA, Ferrari M, Natali A, Conti G, Mega A, Gasparetto A (1994) Noninvasive measurement of forearm blood flow and oxygen consumption by near-infrared spectroscopy. J Appl Physiol 76(3):1388–1393PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Boushel R, Pott F, Madsen P, Rådegran G, Nowak M, Quistorff B, Secher N (1998) Muscle metabolism from near infrared spectroscopy during rhythmic handgrip in humans. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol 79(1):41–48PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Sako T, Hamaoka T, Higuchi H, Kurosawa Y, Katsumura T (2001) Validity of NIR spectroscopy for quantitatively measuring muscle oxidative metabolic rate in exercise. J Appl Physiol 90(1):338–344PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Sahlin K (1992) Non-invasive measurements of O2 availability in human skeletal muscle with near-infrared spectroscopy. Int J Sport Med Suppl 1:S157–S160CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Meyer RA (1988) A linear model of muscle respiration explains monoexponential phosphocreatine changes. Am J Physiol 254(4 Pt 1):C548–C553PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Barstow TJ, Buchthal S, Zanconato S, Cooper DM (1994) Muscle energetics and pulmonary oxygen uptake kinetics during moderate exercise. J Appl Physiol 77(4):1742–1749PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Chance B, Leigh JS Jr, Clark BJ, Maris J, Kent J, Nioka S, Smith D (1985) Control of oxidative metabolism and oxygen delivery in human skeletal muscle: a steady-state analysis of the work/energy cost transfer function. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 82(24):8384–8388PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Binzoni T, Quaresima V, Ferrari M, Hiltbrand E, Cerretelli P (2000) Human calf microvascular compliance measured by near-infrared spectroscopy. J Appl Physiol 88(2):369–372PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Hiatt WR, Huang SY, Regensteiner JG, Micco AJ, Ishimoto G, Manco-Johnson M, Drose J, Reeves JT (1989) Venous occlusion plethysmography reduces arterial diameter and flow velocity. J Appl Physiol 66(5):2239–2244PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Irace CR, Ceravolo L, Notarangelo A, Crescenzo G, Ventura O, Tamburrini F, Perticone Gnasso A (2001) Comparison of endothelial function evaluated by strain gauge plethysmography and brachial artery ultrasound. Atherosclerosis 158(1):53–59PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Nagasawa T, Hamaoka T, Sako T, Murakami M, Kime R, Homma T, Ueda C, Ichimura S, Katsumura T (2003) A practical indicator of muscle oxidative capacity determined by recovery of muscle O2 consumption using NIR spectroscopy. Eur J Sport Sci 3:1–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Ryan TE, Southern WM, Reynolds MA, McCully KK (2013) A cross-validation of near-infrared spectroscopy measurements of skeletal muscle oxidative capacity with phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy. J Appl Physiol 115:1757–1766PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Mahler M (1985) First-order kinetics of muscle oxygen consumption, and an equivalent proportionality between QO2 and phosphorylcreatine level. Implications for the control of respiration. J Gen Physiol 86(1):135-165PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Barbiroli B, Montagna P, Cortelli P, Martinelli P, Sacquegna T, Zaniol P, Lugaresi E (1990) Complicated migraine studied by phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Cephalalgia 10(5):263–272PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    McCully KK, Fielding RA, Evans WJ, Leigh JS Jr, Posner JD (1993) Relationships between in vivo and in vitro measurements of metabolism in young and old human calf muscles. J Appl Physiol 75(2):813–819PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Motobe M, Murase N, Osada T, Homma T, Ueda C, Nagasawa T, Kitahara A, Ichimura S, Kurosawa Y, Katsumura T, Hoshika A, Hamaoka T (2004) Noninvasive monitoring of deterioration in skeletal muscle function with forearm cast immobilization and the prevention of deterioration. Dyn Med 3(1):2PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Murrow JR, Brizendine JT, Djire B, Young HJ, Rathbun S, Nilsson KR Jr, McCully KK (2018) Near infrared spectroscopy-guided exercise training for claudication in peripheral arterial disease. Eur J Prev Cardiol 28:2047487318795192Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    Komiyama T, Quaresima V, Shigematsu H, Ferrari M (2001) Comparison of two spatially resolved near-infrared photometers in the detection of tissue oxygen saturation: poor reliability at very low oxygen saturation. Clin Sci (Lond) 101(6):715–718CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Craig JC, Broxterman RM, Wilcox SL, Chen C, Barstow TJ (2017) Effect of adipose tissue thickness, muscle site, and sex on near-infrared spectroscopy derived total-[hemoglobin + myoglobin]. J Appl Physiol 123(6):1571–1578PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Miura H, McCully K, Hong L, Nioka S, Chance B (2001) Regional difference of muscle oxygen saturation and blood volume during exercise determined by near infrared imaging device. Jpn J Physiol 51(5):599–606PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Niemeijer VM, Jansen JP, van Dijk T, Spee RF, Meijer EJ, Kemps HM, Wijn PF (2017) The influence of adipose tissue on spatially resolved near-infrared spectroscopy derived skeletal muscle oxygenation: the extent of the problem. Physiol Meas 38(3):539–554PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Rittweger J, Moss AD, Colier W, Stewart C, Degens H (2010) Muscle tissue oxygenation and VEGF in VO-matched vibration and squatting exercise. Clin Physiol Funct Imaging 30(4):269–278PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Ferreira LF, Townsend DK, Lutjemeier BJ, Barstow TJ (2005) Muscle capillary blood flow kinetics estimated from pulmonary O2 uptake and near-infrared spectroscopy. J Appl Physiol 98(5):1820–1828PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Poole DC, Barstow TJ, McDonough P, Jones AM (2008) Control of oxygen uptake during exercise. Med Sci Sport Exerc 40(3):462–474CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Kushmerick MJ, Conley KE (2002) Energetics of muscle contraction: the whole is less than the sum of its parts. Biochem Soc Trans 30(2):227–231PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Boone J, Koppo K, Barstow TJ, Bouckaert J (2010) Effect of exercise protocol on deoxy[Hb + Mb]: incremental step versus ramp exercise. Med Sci Sport Exerc 42(5):935–942CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Hamaoka T, Mizuno M, Katsumura T, Osada T, Shimomitsu T, Quistorff B (1998) Correlation between indicators determined by near infrared spectroscopy and muscle fiber types in humans. Jpn J Appl Physiol 28(5):243–248Google Scholar
  107. 107.
    McCully KK, Halber C, Posner JD (1994) Exercise-induced changes in oxygen saturation in the calf muscles of elderly subjects with peripheral vascular disease. J Gerontol 49(3):B128–B134PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Hanada A, Okita K, Yonezawa K, Ohtsubo M, Kohya T, Murakami T, Nishijima H, Tamura M, Kitabatake A (2000) Dissociation between muscle metabolism and oxygen kinetics during recovery from exercise in patients with chronic heart failure. Heart 83(2):161–166PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Mancini DM, Katz SD, Lang CC, LaManca J, Hudaihed A, Androne AS (2003) Effect of erythropoietin on exercise capacity in patients with moderate to severe chronic heart failure. Circulation 107(2):294–299PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Puente-Maestu L, Tena T, Trascasa C, Pérez-Parra J, Godoy R, García MJ, Stringer WW (2003) Training improves muscle oxidative capacity and oxygenation recovery kinetics in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Eur J Appl Physiol 88(6):580–587PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Ichimura S, Murase N, Osada T, Kime R, Homma T, Ueda C, Nagasawa T, Motobe M, Hamaoka T, Katsumura T (2006) Age and activity status affect muscle reoxygenation time after maximal cycling exercise. Med Sci Sport Exerc 38(7):1277–1281CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Kime R, Hamaoka T, Sako T, Murakami M, Homma T, Katsumura T, Chance B (2003) Delayed reoxygenation after maximal isometric handgrip exercise in high oxidative capacity muscle. Eur J Appl Physiol 89(1):34–41PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    McCully KK, Iotti S, Kendrick K, Wang Z, Posner JD, Leigh J Jr, Chance B (1994) Simultaneous in vivo measurements of HbO2 saturation and PCr kinetics after exercise in normal humans. J Appl Physiol 77(1):5–10PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Willingham TB, Southern WM, McCully KK (2016) Measuring reactive hyperemia in the lower limb using near-infrared spectroscopy. J Biomed Opt 21(9):091302PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    McCully KK, Landsberg L, Suarez M, Hofmann M, Posner JD (1997) Identification of peripheral vascular disease in elderly subjects with optical spectroscopy. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 52(3):B159–B165PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Physiological Society of Japan and Springer Japan KK, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Sports Medicine for Health PromotionTokyo Medical UniversityTokyoJapan
  2. 2.Department of KinesiologyUniversity of GeorgiaAthensUSA

Personalised recommendations