Review of early development of near-infrared spectroscopy and recent advancement of studies on muscle oxygenation and oxidative metabolism
Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) has become an increasingly valuable tool to monitor tissue oxygenation (Toxy) in vivo. Observations of changes in the absorption of light with Toxy have been recognized as early as 1876, leading to a milestone NIRS paper by Jöbsis in 1977. Changes in the absorption and scatting of light in the 700–850-nm range has been successfully used to evaluate Toxy. The most practical devices use continuous-wave light providing relative values of Toxy. Phase-modulated or pulsed light can monitor both absorption and scattering providing more accurate signals. NIRS provides excellent time resolution (~ 10 Hz), and multiple source–detector pairs can be used to provide low-resolution imaging. NIRS has been applied to a wide range of populations. Continued development of NIRS devices in terms of lower cost, better detection of both absorption and scattering, and smaller size will lead to a promising future for NIRS studies.
KeywordsMuscle Oximetry Tissue oxygenation Oxidative metabolism Exercise
TH wrote about early development of near-infrared spectroscopy and methodological section and organized throughout the manuscript. KKMC wrote about application of near-infrared spectroscopy to sports and clinical science.
This study was supported by JSPS KAKENHI Grant Number 15H03100, Japan.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
Takafumi Hamaoka declares that he has no conflict of interest. Kevin K. McCully is the President of Infrared Rx, Inc, and NIRS software company.
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki Declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.
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