New insight into GABAergic neurons in the hypothalamic feeding regulation
Several lines of study have suggested that GABA in the hypothalamic feeding center plays a role in promoting food intake. Recent studies revealed that not only NPY/AgRP neurons in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC) that co-express GABA but also other GABAergic neurons act as an orexigenic. Here, we review the progress of studies on hypothalamic GABAergic neurons distributed in ARC, dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH), and lateral hypothalamus (LH). Three advanced technologies have been applied and greatly contributed to the recent progress. Optogenetic (and chemogenetic) approaches map input and output pathways of particular subpopulations of GABAergic neurons. In vivo Ca2+ imaging using GRIN lens and GCaMP can correlate the activity of GABAergic neuron subpopulations with feeding behavior. Single-cell RNA-seq approach clarifies precise transcriptional profiles of GABAergic neuron subpopulations. These approaches have shown diversity of GABAergic neurons and the subpopulation-dependent role in feeding regulation.
KeywordsHypothalamus Food intake GABAergic neurons NPY/AgRP neruons
This study was supported in part by the Grant-in-Aid for Innovative Areas (26670453 to T.Y.) from Japan Society of the Promotion of Science, and grants from Japan Diabetes Foundation to Toshihiko Yada. T.Y. is supported by Programs for Strategic Research Foundation at Private Universities 2011–2015 and 2013–2017 supported by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan (MEXT), and the Advanced Research and Development Programs for Medical Innovation (AMED-CREST) from Japan Agency for Medical Research and development (AMED).
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