A rotating cerium anode X-ray system allows visualization of intramural coronary vessels after cardiac stem cell therapy for myocardial infarction
Conventional angiography is insufficient for evaluating the therapeutic effect of cardiac regeneration therapy. A microangiographic X-ray system using a cerium anode was developed. Cerium has a characteristic X-ray with a peak at 34.6 keV, which allows visualization of tiny amounts of iodine. The performance of the cerium anode X-ray system was evaluated in two excised normal canine hearts and in excised ischemic canine hearts treated with c-kit-positive cardiac stem cells (5 canines) or without cells (5 control canines). In the normal canines, branches penetrating from the left anterior descending artery into the myocardium were visualized, down to third-order branches. In just the treated hearts treated with stem cells, small vessels characterized by irregular vessel walls were observed. The cerium anode X-ray system allowed visualization of microvessels in excised ischemic canine hearts, and may evaluate the effect of cardiac stem cell therapy.
KeywordsMicroangiography C-kit-positive cardiac stem cells Cerium anode Myocardial infarction Canine models
The study was supported by Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research B (20390336, 2007–2010), Grant-in-Aid for Young Scientists B (25861233, 2013–2014), and Grants-in-Aid from The Cardiovascular Research Fund, Tokyo, Japan (H24-06-01, 2013–2014). Additionally, it was partly supported by a research grant from Health and Labour Sciences Research Grant (200624005A, 2004–2006) and The Research Funding for Longevity Sciences from National Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology (NCGG), Japan (22-5, 2010–2012). We would like to acknowledge Masaki Inoue, Emiko Hayashi (Tokai University Institute of Innovative Science and Technology, Kanagawa, Japan), Sachie Tanaka, Yoko Takahari, Yoshiko Shinozaki, Katsuko Naito (Support Center for Medical Research and Education, Tokai University School of Medicine, Kanagawa, Japan), Fujio Ando and Rie Hasegawa (Tokai University Imaging Center, Kanagawa, Japan), who contributed to the experiments.
Design of study; CT, TH, HM. Experiment; CT, TH, YI, YS, KT, TS, TS. NF, HM. Data collecting and analyzing; CT, KT, HM, Drafting the article; CT, TH, HM.
Compliance with ethical standards
This study was funded by Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research B (20390336, 2007–2010), Grant-in-Aid for Young Scientists B (25861233, 2013–2014), and Grants-in-Aid from The Cardiovascular Research Fund, Tokyo, Japan (H24-06-01, 2013–2014). Additionally, it was partly supported by a research grant from Health and Labour Sciences Research Grant (200624005A, 2004–2006) and The Research Funding for Longevity Sciences from National Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology (NCGG), Japan (22-5, 2010–2012).
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict interest other than the funding mentioned above.
Research involving animals
All procedures performed in studies involving animals were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institution or practice at which the studies were conducted.
This article does not contain any studies with human participants.
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