The Journal of Physiological Sciences

, Volume 66, Issue 4, pp 345–357 | Cite as

Effects of icing or heat stress on the induction of fibrosis and/or regeneration of injured rat soleus muscle

  • Tsubasa ShibaguchiEmail author
  • Takao Sugiura
  • Takanori Fujitsu
  • Takumi Nomura
  • Toshinori Yoshihara
  • Hisashi Naito
  • Toshitada Yoshioka
  • Akihiko Ogura
  • Yoshinobu Ohira
Original Paper


The effects of icing or heat stress on the regeneration of injured soleus muscle were investigated in male Wistar rats. Bupivacaine was injected into soleus muscles bilaterally to induce muscle injury. Icing (0 °C, 20 min) was carried out immediately after the injury. Heat stress (42 °C, 30 min) was applied every other day during 2–14 days after the bupivacaine injection. Injury-related increase in collagen deposition was promoted by icing. However, the level of collagen deposition in heat-stressed animals was maintained at control levels throughout the experimental period and was significantly lower than that in icing-treated animals at 15 and 28 days after bupivacaine injection. Furthermore, the recovery of muscle mass, protein content, and muscle fiber size of injured soleus toward control levels was partially facilitated by heat stress. These results suggest that, compared with icing, heat stress may be a beneficial treatment for successful muscle regeneration at least by reducing fibrosis.


Muscle regeneration Fibrosis Heat stress Icing Satellite cell Heat shock protein 72 



We thank Miss Mizuki Hoshi and Miss Misaki Munemura for their technical assistance. This study was supported by the Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C-24500789 by T. Sugiura) from Japan Society for the Promotion of Science.

Author contributions

Conception and design of research: T. Shibaguchi, T. Sugiura, and Y.O. Performed experiments: T. Shibaguchi, T. Sugiura, T.F., and T.N. Analyzed data: T. Shibaguchi, T. Sugiura, T.F., and T.N. Interpreted results of experiments: T. Shibaguchi, T. Sugiura, T. Yoshihara, H.N., T. Yoshioka., A.O., and Y.O. Prepared figures: T. Shibaguchi, T. Sugiura, and Y.O. Drafted manuscript: T. Shibaguchi, T. Sugiura, and Y.O. Edited and revised manuscript: T. Shibaguchi, T. Sugiura, and Y.O. Approved final version of manuscript: All authors.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that there are no conflicts of interest.


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Copyright information

© The Physiological Society of Japan and Springer Japan 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tsubasa Shibaguchi
    • 1
    Email author
  • Takao Sugiura
    • 2
  • Takanori Fujitsu
    • 2
  • Takumi Nomura
    • 2
  • Toshinori Yoshihara
    • 3
  • Hisashi Naito
    • 3
  • Toshitada Yoshioka
    • 4
  • Akihiko Ogura
    • 1
  • Yoshinobu Ohira
    • 5
  1. 1.Graduate School of Frontier BiosciencesOsaka UniversityToyonaka CityJapan
  2. 2.Department of Exercise and Health Sciences, Faculty of EducationYamaguchi UniversityYamaguchi CityJapan
  3. 3.Graduate School of Health and Sports ScienceJuntendo UniversityInzai CityJapan
  4. 4.Hirosaki Gakuin UniversityHirosaki CityJapan
  5. 5.Graduate School of Health and Sports ScienceDoshisha UniversityKyotanabe CityJapan

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