Vitamin E supplementation decreases muscular and oxidative damage but not inflammatory response induced by eccentric contraction

  • Luciano A. Silva
  • Cleber A. Pinho
  • Paulo C. L. Silveira
  • Talita Tuon
  • Claudio T. De Souza
  • Felipe Dal-Pizzol
  • Ricardo A. PinhoEmail author
Original Paper


The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of vitamin E supplementation on muscular and oxidative damage, as well as the inflammatory response induced by eccentric exercise (EE) in humans. Twenty-one participants with a mean age of 22.5 ± 4 years, weight of 68.2 ± 4.9 kg, and height of 173 ± 4.3 cm were selected and divided randomly into two groups: supplemented (S) (n = 11) and placebo (P) (n = 10). Fourteen days after starting supplementation, subjects performed EE (three sets until exhaustion with elbow flexion and extension on the Scott bench, 80% 1 RM). Blood samples were collected on days 0, 2, 4, and 7 after EE. Muscle soreness (MS), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity, lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and interleukin 10 (IL-10) levels were determined. We measured a significant increase in MS, LDH, lipid peroxidation, and carbonylation in both groups on days 2, 4, and 7 after eccentric contractions (EC). Values of the supplement group were lower than those of the placebo group at 4 and 7 days after EC in all parameters. Both groups showed significantly increased TNF-α on the second day and IL-10 concentration on the fourth and seventh days after EE. The results suggest that vitamin E supplementation represents an important factor in the defense against oxidative stress and muscle damage but not against the inflammatory response in humans.


Vitamin E Eccentric exercise Oxidative stress Inflammation 



This research was supported by grants from CNPq/MCT (Brazil), CAPES/MEC (Brazil), and UNESC (Brazil).


  1. 1.
    Bloomer RJ, Goldfarb AH, McKenzie MJ, You T, Nguyen L (2004) Effects of antioxidant therapy in women exposed to eccentric exercise. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 13:377–388Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Cannon JG, Orencole SF, Fielding RA, Meydani M, Meydani SN, Fiatarone MA, Blumberg JB, Evans WJ (1990) Acute phase response in exercise: interaction of age and vitamin E on neutrophils and muscle enzyme release. Am J Physiol 259:1214–1219Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Knez WL, Jenkins DG, Coombes JS (2007) Oxidative stress in half and full Ironman triathletes. Med Sci Sports Exerc 39:283–288CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Goldfarb AH, Bloomer RJ, McKenzie MJ (2005) Combined antioxidant treatment effects on blood oxidative stress after eccentric exercise. Med Sci Sports Exerc 37:234–239CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bryer SC, Goldfarb AH (2006) Effect of high dose vitamin C supplementation on muscle soreness, damage, function, and oxidative stress to eccentric exercise. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 16:270–280PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Zerba ET, Komorowski E, Faulkner JA (1990) Free radical injury to skeletal muscles of young, adult and old mice. Am J Physiol 258:429–435Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Cannon JG, Meydani SN, Fielding RA, Fiatarone MA, Meydani M, Farhangmehr M, Orencole SF, Blumberg JB, Evans WJ (1991) Acute phase response in exercise. II. Associations between vitamin E, cytokines, and muscle proteolysis. Am J Physiol 260:1235–1240Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Meydani M, Evans WJ, Handelman G, Biddle L, Fielding RA, Meydani SN, Burrill J, Fiatarone MA, Blumberg JB, Cannon JG (1993) Protective effect of vitamin E on exercise-induced oxidative damage in young and older adults. Am J Physiol 264:992–998Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Beaton LJ, Allan DA, Tarnopolsky MA, Tiidus PM, Phillips SM (2002) Contraction-induced muscle damage is unaffected by vitamin E supplementation. Med Sci Sports Exerc 34:798–805CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Sacheck JM, Milbury PE, Cannon JG, Roubenoff R, Blumberg JB (2003) Effect of vitamin E and eccentric exercise on selected biomarkers of oxidative stress in young and elderly men. Free Radic Biol Med 15:1575–1588CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Ricciarelli R, Zingg JM, Azzi A (2001) Vitamin E: protective role of a Janus molecule. FASEB J 15:2314–2325CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Childs A, Jacobs C, Kaminski T, Halliwell B, Leeuwenburgh C (2001) Supplementation with vitamin C and N-acetyl-cysteine increases oxidative stress in humans after an acute muscle injury induced by eccentric exercise. Free Radic Biol Med 15:745–753CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Silva LA, Silveira PC, Pinho CA, Tuon T, Dal Pizzol F, Pinho RA (2008) N-acetylcysteine supplementation and oxidative damage and inflammatory response after eccentric exercise. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 18:379–388PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Lee J, Goldfarb AH, Rescino MH, Hegde S, Patrick S, Apperson K (2002) Eccentric exercise effect on blood oxidative-stress markers and delayed onset of muscle soreness. Med Sci Sports Exerc 34:443–448CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Bompa T (2001) Periodização no treinamento esportivo: planejamento do programa. Manole, São PauloGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Revill SI, Robinson JO, Rosen M, Hogg MI (1976) The reliability of a linear analogue for evaluating pain. Anaesthesia 31:1191–1198CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Draper HH, Hadley M (1990) Malondialdehyde determination as index of lipid peroxidation. Methods Enzymol 186:421–431CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Levine RL, Garland D, Oliver CN, Amici A, Climent I, Lenz AG, Ahn AW, Shaltiel S, Stadtman ER (1990) Determination of carbonyl content in oxidatively modified proteins. Methods Enzymol 186:464–478CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Lowry OH, Rosebrough NJ, Farr AL, Randall RJ (1951) Protein measurement with the Folin phenol reagent. J Biol Chem 193:265–275PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Avery NG, Kaiser JL, Sharman MJ, Scheett TP, Barnes DM, Gomez AL, Kraemer WJ, Volek JS (2003) Effects of vitamin E supplementation on recovery from repeated bouts of resistance exercise. J Strength Cond Res 17:801–809CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Kerksick C, Taylor LTH, Harvey A, Willoughby D (2008) Gender-related differences in muscle injury, oxidative stress, and apoptosis. Med Sci Sports Exerc 40:1772–1780CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Phillips T, Childs AC, Dreon DM, Phinney S, Leeuwenburg C (2003) A dietary supplement attenuates IL-6 and CRP after eccentric exercise in untrained males. Med Sci Sports Exerc 35:2032–2037CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Armstrong RB, Warren GL, Warren JA (1991) Mechanisms of exercise-induced muscle fibre injury. Sports Med 12:184–207CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Balnave CD, Thompson MW (1993) Effect of training on eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage. J Appl Physiol 75:1545–1551PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Kourie JI (1998) Interaction of reactive oxygen species with ion transport mechanisms. Am J Physiol 275:C1–C24PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Itoh H, Ohkuwa T, Yamazaki Y, Shimoda T, Wakayama A, Tamura S, Yamamoto T, Sato Y, Miyamura M (2000) Vitamin E supplementation attenuates leakage of enzymes following 6 successive days of running training. Int J Sports Med 21:369–374CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Mastaloudis A, Morrow JD, Hopkins DW, Devaraj S, Traber MG (2004) Antioxidant supplementation prevents exercise-induced lipid peroxidation, but not inflammation, in ultramarathon runners. Free Radic Biol Med 36:1329–1341CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Urso ML, Clarkson PM (2003) Oxidative stress, exercise, and antioxidant supplementation. Toxicology 189:41–54CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Nedzvetsky VS, Tuzcu M, Yasar A, Tikhomirov AA, Baydas G (2006) Effects of vitamin E against aluminum neurotoxicity in rats. Biochemistry (Mosc) 71:239–244CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Leeuwenburgh C, Hasen PA, Holloszy JO, Heinecke JW (1999) Oxidized amino acids in the urine of aging rats: potential markers for assessing oxidative stress in vivo. Am J Physiol 276:128–135Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Szweda PA, Friguet B, Szweda LI (2002) Proteolysis, free radicals, and aging. Free Radic Biol Med 33:29–36CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Jackson MJ, Khassaf M, Vasilaki A, McArdle F, McArdle A (2004) Vitamin E and the oxidative stress of exercise. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1031:158–168CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Cavaillon JM, Fitting C, Adib-Conquy M (2004) Mechanisms of immunodysregulation in sepsis. Contrib Nephrol 144:76–93CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Physiological Society of Japan and Springer 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Luciano A. Silva
    • 1
  • Cleber A. Pinho
    • 1
  • Paulo C. L. Silveira
    • 1
  • Talita Tuon
    • 1
  • Claudio T. De Souza
    • 1
  • Felipe Dal-Pizzol
    • 2
  • Ricardo A. Pinho
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Exercise Biochemistry and Physiology Laboratory, Postgraduate Program in Health Sciences, Health Sciences UnitUniversity of Southern Santa CatarinaCriciúmaBrazil
  2. 2.Physiopathology Laboratory, Postgraduate Program in Health Sciences, Health Sciences UnitUniversity of Southern Santa CatarinaCriciúmaBrazil

Personalised recommendations