Incidental finding of a mass fitting into a patent foramen ovale

  • Mohammed Andaleeb Chowdhury
  • Kasi Ramanathan
  • Robert D. Grande
  • John R. Letcher
Case image in cardiovascular ultrasound


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

Mohammed Andaleeb Chowdhury, Kasi Ramanathan, Robert D Grande and John R Letcher declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Human rights statements and informed consent

All procedures followed were in accordance with the ethical standards of the responsible committee on human experimentation (institutional and national) and with the Helsinki Declaration of 1964 and later revisions. Informed consent was obtained from all patients for being included in the study.

Supplementary material

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Supplementary material 1 (WMV 509 kb)
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Supplementary material 2 (WMV 705 kb)
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Supplementary material 3 (WMV 627 kb)
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Supplementary material 4 (WMV 1384 kb)


  1. 1.
    Devereaux PJ, Goldman L, Cook DJ, et al. Perioperative cardiac events in patients undergoing noncardiac surgery: a review of the magnitude of the problem, the pathophysiology of the events and methods to estimate and communicate risk. CMAJ. 2005;173(6):627–34.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Thind M, Ahmed MI, Gok G, et al. Incremental value of three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography over the two-dimensional technique in the assessment of a thrombus in transit through a patent foramen ovale. Echocardiography. 2015;32:848–54.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Seo WW, Kim SE, Park MS, et al. Systematic review of treatment for trapped thrombus in patent foramen ovale. Korean Circ J. 2017;47:776–85.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Japanese Society of Echocardiography 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mohammed Andaleeb Chowdhury
    • 1
  • Kasi Ramanathan
    • 2
  • Robert D. Grande
    • 2
  • John R. Letcher
    • 2
  1. 1.University of Toledo Medical CenterToledoUSA
  2. 2.Promedica Toledo HospitalToledoUSA

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