Journal of Echocardiography

, Volume 16, Issue 4, pp 189–191 | Cite as

Simple and easy quantitation of functional mitral valve area using novel automated flow measurement technique with real-time 3-D color Doppler echocardiography

  • Nozomi Watanabe
  • Shun Nishino
  • Yoshisato Shibata
Case image in cardiovascular ultrasound


Diagnosis of hemodynamically significant mitral stenosis is clinically important both in rheumatic and nonrheumatic conditions. Anatomical mitral valve area (MVA) does not always represent functional MVA, which actually determines the hemodynamic burden of the left atrium [ 1]. Previous reports indicated the differences between anatomical MVA and functional MVA in heart failure condition, and functional mitral stenosis can be reversible after intensive treatment of congestive heart failure [ 2]. On one hand, functional mitral stenosis after mitral valve repair has recently been recognized as a problem in the era of early surgery for asymptomatic patients, and clinical surveillance of functional mitral stenosis considering the types and sizes of the annuloplasty ring should be needed to avoid early and late post-operative functional mitral stenosis [ 3]. Nevertheless, accurate measurements of the functional MVA is challenging by conventional continuity equation utilizing...


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

Nozomi Watanabe, Shun Nishino and Yoshisato Shibata declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Human rights

All procedures followed were in accordance with the ethical standards of the responsible committee on human experimentation (institutional and national) and with the Helsinki Declaration of 1964 and later revisions.

Informed consent

Informed consent was obtained from all patients for being included in the study.


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Copyright information

© Japanese Society of Echocardiography 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nozomi Watanabe
    • 1
  • Shun Nishino
    • 1
  • Yoshisato Shibata
    • 1
  1. 1.Miyazaki Medical Association Hospital Cardiovascular CenterMiyazakiJapan

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