Journal of Biorheology

, Volume 23, Issue 1, pp 35–40 | Cite as

Deformability and adhesive force of artificial platelets measured by atomic force microscopy

  • Toru Wada
  • Yosuke Okamura
  • Shinji Takeoka
  • Ryo Sudo
  • Yasuo Ikeda
  • Kazuo Tanishita
Original Article


Platelet glycoprotein GPIaIIa is an adhesive protein that recognizes collagen. We have investigated polymerized albumin particles conjugated with recombinant GPIaIIa (rGPIaIIa-poly Alb) for their platelet-like function. To evaluate the feasibility of these particles to achieve the hemostatic process, we measured the deformability (Young’s modulus and spring constant) and the adhesive force of the particles using atomic force microscopy, which can measure the mechanical properties of individual cells. Our results showed that the Young’s modulus of these particles was 2.3-fold larger than that of natural platelets and 12-fold larger than that of human red blood cells. The Young’s modulus of the particles may have been determined by the properties of the polymerized albumin particle, although the glycoprotein of the platelet surface also contributed to the higher modulus. Our results also showed that the adhesive force of the rGPIaIIa-poly Alb with the collagen ligand was 52% of that of natural platelets. These two mechanical properties (deformability and adhesive force) of cells or particles, such as rGPIaIIa-poly Alb, are important specifications for the optimum design of platelet substitutes.


Adhesive force Atomic force microscopy Deformability Glycoprotein GPIaIIa Platelet substitutes Thrombocytopenia Young’s modulus 



This work was supported by Health Science Research Grants (Artificial Platelets) from the Research on Advanced Medical Technology, Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare, Japan.


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Copyright information

© Japanese Society of Biorheology 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Toru Wada
    • 1
  • Yosuke Okamura
    • 2
  • Shinji Takeoka
    • 2
  • Ryo Sudo
    • 3
  • Yasuo Ikeda
    • 4
  • Kazuo Tanishita
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of System Design EngineeringKeio UniversityYokohamaJapan
  2. 2.Department of Life Science and Medical BioscienceWaseda UniversityTokyoJapan
  3. 3.Department of Biological EngineeringMassachusetts Institute of TechnologyCambridgeUSA
  4. 4.School of MedicineKeio UniversityTokyoJapan

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