Food Security

, Volume 10, Issue 6, pp 1547–1559 | Cite as

The Brazilian food security scale for indigenous Guarani households: Development and validation

  • Ana Maria Segall-Corrêa
  • Leticia Marín-Leon
  • Marta Maria do Amaral Azevedo
  • Maria Beatriz R. Ferreira
  • Deoclécio Rocco Gruppi
  • Daniele F. M. Camargo
  • Rodrigo Pinheiro de Toledo Vianna
  • Rafael Pérez-Escamilla
Original Paper


In Brazil there are 817,963 Indigenous people distributed across 305 ethnic groups, and speaking 274 different languages. The objective of this paper was to develop and validate an experience-based household food security measurement scale among the Guarani people. A mixed-methods study was conducted between 2007 and 2012 in four Guarani communities located on the coast of Sao Paulo. The qualitative phase involved developing an 11-item scale in full consultation and partnership with representatives from the Indigenous communities. Psychometric testing was conducted in 3 villages from 2011 to 2012 by applying the scale predominantly to adult women. Selected nutritional and social indicators were collected for testing the scale’s external validity. Psychometric testing was done with the Rasch model (N = 88). Severity scores of items followed the theoretically expected ranking order. Nine out of the 11 scale items had an adequate fit to the whole scale (“infit” values ranging from 0.8 to 1.3). Three of these 9 items had severity scores that were very similar to other scale items indicating redundancy of information and thus two of them were dropped from the scale. The final scale was translated into Guarani confirming the face validity of questions and response options for households with children and adolescents. In conclusion, it was possible to develop a valid experience-based Brazilian Food Security Scale for Indigenous Guarani People (EBIA-G) that can now be tested among diverse Indigenous groups in the country.


Food security Measurement Scale Psychometric Indigenous communities Validation Brazil 


Funding agencies

National Council for Scientific and Technological Development-CNPq (Process: 401176/2005). Support Fund for Teaching, Research and Extension, FAEPEX/UNICAMP (Process 519.294 aux) 141/11.

Compliance with ethical standards

Author disclosures

Ana Maria Segall-Corrêa; Leticia Marín-Leon; Marta Maria Azevedo; Maria Beatriz R. Ferreira; Deoclécio Rocco Gruppi; Daniele F.M. Camargo; Rodrigo Pinheiro T. Vianna; Rafael Pérez-Escamilla declare that they have no conflict of interest.


The research project was approved by the Ministry of Health Human Subjects Research Ethics Committee (CONEP N° 1102/2006).


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. and International Society for Plant Pathology 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ana Maria Segall-Corrêa
    • 1
  • Leticia Marín-Leon
    • 2
  • Marta Maria do Amaral Azevedo
    • 3
  • Maria Beatriz R. Ferreira
    • 4
  • Deoclécio Rocco Gruppi
    • 5
  • Daniele F. M. Camargo
    • 2
  • Rodrigo Pinheiro de Toledo Vianna
    • 6
  • Rafael Pérez-Escamilla
    • 7
  1. 1.Program of Food, Nutrition and Culture-Oswaldo Cruz Foundation – FiocruzBrasiliaBrazil
  2. 2.Department of Collective Health- Faculty of Medical Science-UNICAMPCampinasBrazil
  3. 3.Center for Population Studies-NEPO-UNICAMPCampinasBrazil
  4. 4.Faculty of Education-UFGDDouradosBrazil
  5. 5.Department of Physical Education-UNICENTRO/PrGuarapuavaBrazil
  6. 6.Health Science Center – UFPBParaíbaBrazil
  7. 7.Department of Social and Behavioral SciencesYale School of Public HealthNew HavenUSA

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