Food Security

, Volume 10, Issue 2, pp 419–435 | Cite as

Post-harvest management and associated food losses and by-products of cassava in southern Ethiopia

  • Aditya Parmar
  • Asnake Fikre
  • Barbara Sturm
  • Oliver Hensel
Original Paper
  • 55 Downloads

Abstract

Improved (high yield and disease resistant) cassava varieties were introduced into Ethiopia around the onset of the twenty-first century, as a potential food security crop. At present, limited information is available from the country on post-production aspects of the value chain (VC) and related food losses. The lack of such data prevents policymakers and VC actors from taking steps towards improving VC efficiencies, which can have a significant impact on livelihoods and food security. The focus of this study was to examine the prevailing post-harvest practices in the cassava VC in southern Ethiopia and quantify the extent of food losses and associated by-products in the framework of the recently developed ‘food loss and waste protocol’. The majority of the cassava in the study area was processed into dry chips and milled into a composite flour with teff and maize to prepare the staple bread (injera). ‘Critical loss points’ were during sun-drying (4%) and stockpiling at farm and marketplace (30–50%). Insect pest damage was primarily responsible for food losses at farm and market level. The most important insect species infesting dry cassava were identified during the survey. As far as the by-products were concerned, the ratio of leaf:wood (stem and stump):starchy root on a dry matter basis at harvest was 1:6:10. Further emphasis should be on improving processing and storage technologies to reduce food losses and the better recovery and utilisation of by-products, especially the leaves of cassava, which could be a potential source of protein in human diets.

Keywords

Cassava Ethiopia Food losses Inedible parts Value chain Insect-pests 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors thank German Academic Exchange Services (DAAD) and the project RELOAD (Grant No. 031A247A-D) for funding this study. This work would not have been possible without the support of the local partner organisations especially the Ethiopian Institute of Agriculture Research (EIAR) and Hawassa University, Hawassa.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declared that they have no conflict of interest.

References

  1. Abuye, C., Kelbessa, U., & Wolde-Gebriel, S. (1998). Health effects of cassava consumption in south Ethiopia. East African Medical Journal, 75(3), 166–170.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Adesina, B. S., & Bolaji, O. T. (2013). Effect of milling machines and sieve sizes on cooked cassava flour quality. Nigerian Food Journal, 31(1), 115–119.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0189-7241(15)30065-5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Adugna, A. (2014). Sountern Nations, Nationalities and people region: Demography and Health, (July), 1–20. http://www.ethiodemographyandhealth.org/AynalemAdugna_SNNPR_2017.pdf.
  4. Affognon, H., Mutungi, C., Sanginga, P., & Borgemeister, C. (2015). Unpacking postharvest losses in sub-Saharan Africa: A meta-analysis. World Development, 66, 49–68.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.worlddev.2014.08.002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Anshebo, T., Tofu, A., Tsegaye, E., Tadesse, T., Kifle, A., & Dange, Y. (2004). New cassava varieties for tropical semi-arid climate of Ethiopia. In N. M. Mahungu & V. M. Manyong (Eds.), Proceedings: 9th International Society For Tropical Root Crops-Africa Branch (ISTRC-AB) Symposium, Nairobi, Kenya, 526–531.Google Scholar
  6. APHIS (2015). Larger Grain Borer 2004–2015. African Post-harvest loss Information System. http://www.aphlis.net/?form=larger_grain_borer. Accessed 12 Sept 2016.
  7. Atser, G. (2012). Cassava varieties developed by IITA show promise of tackling famine in the horn of Africa. International Institute of Tropical Agriculture. http://liferay.iita.org/web/iita/2012-press-releases/-/asset_publisher/CxA7/content/cassava-varieties-developed-by-iita-show-promise-of-tackling-famine-in-the-horn-of-africa#.WZqmFlVJaUk. Accessed 17 Aug 2017.
  8. Balta, A., Tessema, A., & H/Wold, D. (2015). Assessment of household food security and coping strategies in Wolaita Zone : The case of Sodo Zuria Woreda. Journal of Poverty, Investment and Development, 18, 23–40.Google Scholar
  9. Bekele, J., & Butako, B. (2011). Occurrence and financial loss assessment of cystic echinococcosis (hydatidosis) in cattle slaughtered at Wolayita Sodo municipal abattoir, Southern Ethiopia. Tropical Animal Health and Production, 43(1), 221–228.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11250-010-9680-5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Bellotti, A., & van Schoonhoven, A. (1978). Mite and insect pests of cassava. Annual Review of Entomology, 23, 39–67.  https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.en.23.010178.000351.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Bokanga, M. (2000). Cassava: Post-harvest operations. In D. Mejia & B. Lewis (Eds.), Information network on post-harvest compendium. Rome: FAO.Google Scholar
  12. CABI (2015). Prostephanus truncatus (larger grain borer). Invasive Species Compendium. http://www.cabi.org/isc/. Accessed 12 Sept 2016.
  13. Chijindu, E. N., Boateng, B. A., Ayertey, J. N., Cudjoe, A. R., & Okonkwo, N. J. (2008). The effect of processing method of cassava chips on the development of Prostephanus Truncatus (horn) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae). African Journal of Agricultural Research, 3(8), 537–541.Google Scholar
  14. Cock, J. (1985). Cassava: New potential for a neglected crop (p. 191). Epping: Westview Press, Bowker Publishing Co. Google Scholar
  15. CSA (2007). Population and housing census of Ethiopia. Addis Ababa.Google Scholar
  16. Desse, G., & Taye, M. (2001). Microbial load and microflora of cassava (Manihot Esculenta Crantz) and effect of cassava juice on some foodborne pathogens. Journal of Food Technology in Africa, 6(1), 21–24.  https://doi.org/10.4314/jfta.v6i1.19279
  17. EARO (2000). Industrial crop research strategy. Addis Ababa.Google Scholar
  18. Emmanuel, O., Olapeju, O., Dohou, S., Moutairou, E., Nankagninou, D., Komlaga, G. A., & Loueke, G. (2010). Training manual (draft) processing of cassava into gari and high-quality cassava flour in West Africa (pp. 1–31). USAID, Songhai. http://www.coraf.org/database/publication/publication/cassavatrainingmanual.pdf.
  19. Enidiok, S. E., Attah, L. E., & Otuechere, C. A. (2008). Evaluation of moisture, total cyanide and fiber contents of garri produced from cassava (Manihot Utilissima) varieties obtained from Awassa in southern Ethiopia. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 7(5), 625–629.  https://doi.org/10.3923/pjn.2008.625.629.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. FAOSTAT. (2016). Production and area of cultivation for sweetpotato. Crops, National Production. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization Statistics.Google Scholar
  21. FLWP (2016). Food loss and waste accounting and reporting standard. Washington, DC. ISBN: 978-1-56973-892-4. http://flwprotocol.org/.
  22. GFSI (2014). Global food security index Ethiopia. The Economist Intelligence Unit Limited. http://foodsecurityindex.eiu.com/Country/Details#Ethiopia.
  23. Golob, P., Farrell, G., & Orchard, J. (2002). Crop post-harvest: Science and technology, volume 1. UK: Blackwell Publication Company.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Grace, M. (1977). Cassava Processing. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization Of The United Nations.Google Scholar
  25. Gustavsson, J., Cederberg, C., Sonesson, U., van Otterdijk, R., & Meybeck, A. (2011). Global food losses and food waste: Extent, causes and prevention. International congress: Save food!  https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2010.0126.
  26. Grootaert, P., Pollet, M., Dekoninck, W., & van Achterberg, C. (2010). Sampling insects: general techniques, strategies and remarks. In Manual on field recording techniques and protocols for all taxa biodiversity inventories, Abc Taxa, Belgium, 377–399.Google Scholar
  27. Hagstrum, D., Klejdysz, T., Subramanyam, B., & Nawrot, J. (2013). Atlas of stored – Product insects and mites. St. Paul: AACC International, Inc.Google Scholar
  28. Haile, A. (2015). Cassava plantation, consumption and post-harvest processing in Ethiopia. Cassava Cyanide Diseases & Neurolathyrism Network (CCDN), 26, 7–9.Google Scholar
  29. Haile, A. (2014). Evaluation of cassava cultivars and methods for roots processing in development of cassava composite flours for production a household staple Injera in Ethiopia. Ethiopia: Addis Ababa University.Google Scholar
  30. Haile, A., Retta, N., Abuye, C., Science, F., Ababa, A., & Ababa, A. (2014). Evaluation of methods for roots processing on removal of anti-nutritional factors of selected cultivars of cassava (Manihot esculenta C.) grown in Ethiopia. Journal of Science & Development, 2(2), 87–100. Google Scholar
  31. Harvestplus (2016). Biofortified staple food crops: Who is growing what? file:///C:/Users/Aditya/Downloads/HarvestPlus_BiofortifiedCropMap_2016.pdf. Accessed 15 Nov 2016.Google Scholar
  32. Hell, K., Edoh Ognakossan, K., & Lamboni, Y. (2014). PICS hermetic storage bags ineffective in controlling infestations of Prostephanus Truncatus and Dinoderus spp. in traditional cassava chips. Journal of Stored Products Research, 58, 53–58.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jspr.2014.03.003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Hodges, R. J., Meik, J., & Denton, H. (1985). Infestation of dried cassava (Manihot Esculenta Crantz) by Prostephanus Truncatus (Horn) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae). Journal of Stored Products Research, 21(2), 73–77.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-474X(85)90024-4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Hodges, R. J., Buzby, J. C., & Bennett, B. (2011). Postharvest losses and waste in developed and less developed countries: Opportunities to improve resource use. Journal of Agricultural Science, 149, 37–45.  https://doi.org/10.1017/S0021859610000936.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Howeler, R., Lutaladio, N., & Thomson, G. (2013). Save and grow: Cassava. A guide for sustainable production and intensification. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization Of The United Nations.Google Scholar
  36. Isah, M., Ayertey, J., Ukeh, D., & Umoetok, S. (2012). Damage and weight loss of dried chips of cassava, cocoyam, yam and plantain exposed to Prostephanus Truncatus (horn)(Coleoptera:Bostrichidae) over three different time durations. Journal of Entomology, 9(3), 137–145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Kassa, Z. (2013). Ethiopia: Cassava becoming source of food in Ethiopia. Addis Ababa: Ethiopian Radio and Television Agency http://allafrica.com/stories/201306031862.html. Accessed 17 Aug 2017.Google Scholar
  38. Kebede, A., Teshome, B., Wondimu, A., Belay, A., Wodajo, B., & Lakew, A. (2012). Detoxification and consumption of cassava based foods in south West Ethiopia. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 11(2), 237–242.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Kummu, M., de Moel, H., Porkka, M., Siebert, S., Varis, O., & Ward, P. J. (2012). Lost food, wasted resources: Global food supply chain losses and their impacts on freshwater, cropland, and fertiliser use. Science of the Total Environment, 438, 477–489.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2012.08.092.
  40. Laekemariam, F. (2016). Soil nutrient status of smallholder cassava farms in southern Ethiopia. Journal of Biology, Agriculture and Healthcare, 6(19), 12–18.  https://doi.org/10.1080/00103629809370135.Google Scholar
  41. Lebot, V. (2009). Tropical root and tuber crops: Cassava, sweet potato, yams and aroids. Crop production science in horticulture no. 17, CABI Publishing, Oxfordshire. doi: https://doi.org/10.1017/S0014479709007832.
  42. Legesse, Z. L. (2013). Impact of cassava production in ensuring food security of farm households: The case of Amaro Woreda in southern nations, nationalities and peoples regional state of Ethiopia. Haramaya University. Retrieved from http://213.55.85.90/bitstream/handle/123456789/797/Zeme1.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y.
  43. Legesse, Z. L., & Geta, E. (2015). Impact of cassava production in ensuring food security of farm households: The case of southern Ethiopia. World Applied Sciences Journal, 33(11), 1746–1759.  https://doi.org/10.5829/idosi.wasj.2015.33.11.15621.Google Scholar
  44. Lozano, J.C., Bellotti, A.C., Reyes, J.A., Howeler, R., Leihner, D., & Doll, J. (1981). Field problems in cassava (2 ed., p. 192). Cali: Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical (CIAT seres no. 07EC-1).Google Scholar
  45. Markos, D., Hidoto, L., & Negash, F. (2016). Achievements of cassava agronomy research in southern Ethiopia in the last two decades. Agriculture and Food Sciences Research, 3(1), 12–18.  https://doi.org/10.20448/journal.512/2016.3.1/512.1.12.18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Morgan, N. K., & Choct, M. (2016). Cassava: Nutrient composition and nutritive value in poultry diets. Animal Nutrition, 2(4), 253–261.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aninu.2016.08.010.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Mulualem, T. (2012). Cassava (Mannihot esculenta Cranz) varieties and harvesting stages influenced yield and yield related components. Journal of Natural Sciences Research, 2(10), 122–129.Google Scholar
  48. Mulualem, T., & Dagne, Y. (2015). Farmer's appraisal, manifestation and scaling up of improved cassava technologies in moisture stressed areas of the southern Ethiopia. Journal of Genetic and Environmental Resources Conservation, 3(1), 100–105.Google Scholar
  49. Mulualem, T., Weldemichael, G., Benti, T., & Walle, T. (2012). Genetic diversity of cassava (Manihot Esculenta Crantz) genotypes in Ethiopia. Greener Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 3(9), 636–642.Google Scholar
  50. Mulualem, T., & Weldemicheal, G. (2013). Evaluation of the adaptability and acceptability of improved cassava (Manihot Esculenta Crantz) varieties in southwest. Greener Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 3(8), 658–562.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Naziri, D., Quaye, W., Siwoku, B., Wanlapatit, S., Phu, T. V., & Bennett, B. (2014). The diversity of postharvest losses in cassava value chains in selected developing countries. Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development in the Tropics and Subtropics, 115(2), 111–123.Google Scholar
  52. Nduwumuremyi, A., Melis, R., Shanahan, P., & Asiimwe, T. (2016). Participatory appraisal of preferred traits, production constraints and postharvest challenges for cassava farmers in Rwanda. Food Security, 8(2), 375–388.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12571-016-0556-z.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Nebiyu, A. (2004). Genetic diversity of cassava in Ethiopia: Its implication for food security and the need for biotechnology research. In A. A. C. Alves (Ed.), Sixth International Scientific Meeting of the Cassava Biotechnology Network (p. 39). Cali: Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical (CIAT).Google Scholar
  54. Nebiyu, A. (2006). Genetic variations in cassava at Jimma, Southwest Ethiopia. Tropical Science, 46(3), 171–175.  https://doi.org/10.1002/ts.171.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Nebiyu, A., & Getachew, E. (2011). Soaking and drying of cassava roots reduced cyanogenic potential of three cassava varieties at Jimma, Southwest Ethiopia. African Journal of Biotechnology, 10(62), 13465–13469.  https://doi.org/10.5897/AJB10.2636.Google Scholar
  56. NMSA. (1996). Climate and agronomic resource of Ethiopia. Addis Ababa: Meteorological Research Report Series.Google Scholar
  57. Oguntade, A. E. (2013). Food losses in cassava and maize value chains in Nigeria: Analysis and recommendations for reduction strategies. Eschborn: Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH. Google Scholar
  58. Parmar, A., Kirchner, S. M., Langguth, H., Do, T. F., & Hensel, O. (2017a). Boxwood borer Heterobostrychus Brunneus (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) infesting dried cassava: A current record from southern Ethiopia. Journal of Insect Science, 17(1), 1–8.  https://doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhw393.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Parmar, A., Sturm, B., & Hensel, O. (2017b). Crops that feed the world: Production and improvement of cassava for food, feed, and industrial uses. Food Security.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12571-017-0717-8.
  60. Ravindran, V. (1993). Cassava leaves as animal feed: Potential and limitations. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 61(2), 141–150.  https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.2740610202.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Shonga, E., Addis, T., Mesele, G., & Tadesse, T. (2012). Cassava scale: A new threat for a food security crop in Ethiopia. The African Journal of Plant Science and Biotechnology, 6(1), 80–83.Google Scholar
  62. Stumpf, E. (1998). Post-harvest loss due to pests in dried cassava chips and comparative methods for its assessment: A case study on small-scale farm households in Ghana. Humbolt University, Berlin. Retrieved from http://www.fao.org/wairdocs/x5426e/x5426e04.htm.
  63. Tadesse, T., Degu, G., Shonga, E., Mekonen, S., Addis, T., & Yakob, B. (2013). Current status, potentials and challenges of cassava production, processing, marketing and utilization: Evidence from southern Ethiopia. Greener Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 3(4), 262–270.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Taye, M., & Biratu, E. (1999). Effect of storage and cooking practices on the total cyanide content of two cassava (Manihot Esculenta Crantz) cultivars. Ethiopian Journal of Science, 22(1), 55–66.Google Scholar
  65. Uchechukwu-Agua, A. D., Caleb, O. J., & Opara, U. L. (2015). Postharvest handling and storage of fresh cassava root and products: A review. Food and Bioprocess Technology, 8(4), 729–748.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11947-015-1478-z.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. UN (2017). World Population Prospects of United Nations. https://esa.un.org/unpd/wpp/DataQuery/. Accessed 14 Jan 2018.
  67. USAID (2016). Ethiopia: Food security outlook. Addis Ababa.Google Scholar
  68. USDA (2016). National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference Release, 28 https://ndb.nal.usda.gov/ndb/foods/show/2907?manu=&fgcd=&ds=. Accessed 14 Jan 2018.
  69. Uygun, U., Koksel, H., & Atli, A. (2005). Residue levels of malathion and its metabolites and fenitrothion in post-harvest treated wheat during storage, milling, and baking. Food Chemistry, 92.Google Scholar
  70. Vijayavenkataraman, S., Iniyan, S., & Goic, R. (2012). A review of solar drying technologies. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 16(5), 2652–2670.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2012.01.007.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Webb, P., von Braun, J., & Yohannes, Y. (1992). Famine in Ethiopia: Policy implications of coping failure at national and household levels. Washington, DC: International Food Policy Research Institute.Google Scholar
  72. Westerberg, A., Zhang, J., & Sun, C. (2012). Cassava: A multi-purpose crop for the future. In C. Pace (Ed.), Cassava: Farming, uses and economic impact (pp. 145–159). New York: Nova Science Publishers, Inc..Google Scholar
  73. Wobeto, C., Corrêa, A. D., De Abreu, C. M. P., Santos, C. D. D., & Pereira, H. V. (2007). Antinutrients in the cassava (Manihot Esculenta Crantz) leaf powder at three ages of the plant. Ciência e Tecnologia de Alimentos, 27(1), 108–112.  https://doi.org/10.1590/S0101-20612007000100019.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Wright, M., Jeremiah, S., Wareing, P., Rwiza, E., & Msabaha, R. (1997). Post-harvest storage problems in dried cassava and sweet potato in Tanzania. Kent, UK.Google Scholar
  75. Xue, Z., Zhang, J., Zhang, Y. L., Li, C. B., & Chen, S. (2015). Test and analysis on the mechanical properties of cassava stalks. The Journal of Animal & Plant Sciences, 25(3), 59–67.Google Scholar
  76. Yebo, B., & Dange, Y. (2015). Agronomic research achievements and findings of taro and cassava crops in Ethiopia: A review. Journal of Agronomy, 14(1), 1–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Zhu, W., Lestander, T., Örberg, H., Wei, M., Hedman, B., Ren, J., et al. (2015). Cassava stems: A new resource to increase food and fuel production. GCB Bioenergy, 7(1), 72–83.  https://doi.org/10.1111/gcbb.1211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V., part of Springer Nature and International Society for Plant Pathology 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Agricultural and Biosystems EngineeringUniversity of KasselWitzenhausenGermany
  2. 2.International Crop Research Institute for the Semi-Arid tropicsAddis AbabaEthiopia
  3. 3.School of Agriculture, Food and Rural DevelopmentNewcastle UniversityNewcastle upon TyneUK

Personalised recommendations