Crops that feed the world: Production and improvement of cassava for food, feed, and industrial uses
- 881 Downloads
Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is one of the oldest root and tuber crops, used by humans to produce food, feed and beverages. Currently, cassava is produced in more than 100 countries and fulfils the daily caloric demands of millions of people living in tropical America, Africa, and Asia. Its importance as a food security crop is high in Western, Central and Eastern Africa due to its ability to produce reasonable yields (~10 t/ha) in poor soils and with minimal inputs. Traditionally a famine reserve and a subsistence crop, the status of cassava is now evolving fast as a cash crop and as raw material in the production of starch (and starch based products), energy (bio-ethanol) and livestock feed in the major producing countries. Cassava leaves, which are rich in protein and beta-carotenoids, are also used as a vegetable and forage (fresh or dehydrated meal) in various parts of the world. In recent years, some of the problems in the production of cassava have been increasing infection with cassava mosaic disease (CMD), cassava brown streak disease (CBSD) and cassava bacterial blight (CBB). Inherent post-harvest physiological disorder (PPD) and cyanogenic glycosides (CG) are some of the most prominent challenges for scientists, producers and consumers in the post-production systems. Collaborative research in participatory plant breeding is ongoing at leading international research institutes such as IITA and CIAT to improve crop resistance to virus diseases, reduce PPD and CG, and improve the overall nutritional characteristics. Further research should also focus on post-production systems by developing enhanced storage and transportation techniques, mechanisation (peeling, size reduction, drying and dewatering) and improved packaging. Moreover, a robust national policy, market development, and dissemination and extension program are required to realise the full potential of innovations and technologies in cassava production and processing.
KeywordsCassava Cassava breeding Cassava leaves Cyanogenic glucosides Cassava mosaic disease Cassava brown streak disease Manihot esculenta Postharvest physiological disorder
This work was supported by the German Academic Exchange Services (DAAD) and GlobeE project RELOAD (Grant No. 031A247A) funded by Ministry of Education and Research and Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development, Germany.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- Alabi, O. J., Mulenga, R. M., & Legg, J. P. (2015). Cassava Mosaic. In G. Fermin & P. Tennant (Eds.), Virus diseases of tropical and subtropical crops (pp. 42–55). Wallingford: CABI, Wallingford, UK.Google Scholar
- Allem, A. (2002). The origins and taxonomy of cassava. In R. J. Hillocks, J. M. Thresh, & A. Bellotti (Eds.), Cassava : Biology, production, and utilization (pp. 1–17). Wallingford: CAB International Wallingford, UK.Google Scholar
- Bokanga, M. (1999). Cassava: Post-harvest operations. In Information network on post- harvest operations (pp. 1–26). Rome: FAO.Google Scholar
- Bradbury, J. H., & Holloway, W. D. (1988). Chemistry of Tropical Root Crops: Significance for Nutrition and Agriculture in the Pacific. Canberra: Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research, monograph no. 6, Canberra, Australia.Google Scholar
- Byju, G., Nedunchezhiyan, M., Ravindran, C. S., Mithra, V. S. S., Ravi, V., & Naskar, S. K. (2012). Modeling the response of cassava to fertilizers: A site-specific nutrient management approach for greater tuberous root yield. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis, 43, 1149–1162.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- CABI. (2016). Invasive species compendium. CAB International. http://www.cabi.org/isc/datasheet/17107. Accessed 1 Dec 2016.
- Carter, S. E., Fresco, L. O., Jones, P. G., & Fairbairn, J. N. (1995). Introduction and diffusion of cassava in Africa. Ibadan: IITA (International Institute of Tropical Agriculture), Ibadan, Nigeria. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/40207427_Introduction_and_diffusion_of_cassava_in_Africa
- Cock, J. H. (1973). Cyanide toxicity in relation to the cassava research program of CIAT in Colombia. In B. Nestel & R. MacIntyre (Eds.), Chronic cassava toxicity (pp. 37–40). Ottawa: International Development Research Centre, Ottawa, Canada.Google Scholar
- Cock, J. H. (1985). Cassava: New potential for a neglected crop. Colorado: Westview Press Inc..Google Scholar
- CodexAlimentarius. (2013). Proposed draft: Maximum levels for Hydrocyanic Acid in Cassava and Cassava Products. Joint FAO/WHO Food Standards Programme, Rome, Italy. ftp://ftp.fao.org/codex/meetings/cccf/cccf7/cf07_10e.pdf. Accessed 12 December 2016.
- Coursey, D. G. (1973). Cassava as food: Toxicity and technology. In B. Nestle & R. MacIntyre (Eds.), Chronic cassava toxicity (pp. 27–36). Ottawa: International Development Research Centre.Google Scholar
- Denison, R. F. (2012). Darwinian agriculture: How understanding evolution can improve agriculture. Darwinian Agriculture: How Understanding Evolution Can Improve Agriculture. http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?eid=2-s2.0-84924338776&partnerID=tZOtx3y1%5Cn http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?eid=2-s2.0-84871790758&partnerID=tZOtx3y1
- El-Sharkawy, M. A. (2007). Physiological characteristics of cassava tolerance to prolonged drought in the tropics: Implications for breeding cultivars adapted to seasonally dry and semiarid environments. Brazilian Journal of Plant Physiology, 19(4), 257–286. https://doi.org/10.1590/S1677-04202007000400003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- FAOSTAT. (2014). FAOSTAT. Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations. http://data.fao.org/ref/262b79ca-279c-4517-93de-ee3b7c7cb553.html?version=1.0
- Golob, P., Farrell, G., & Orchard, J. (2002). Crop Post-Harvest: Science and Technology. (volume 1.). Oxford: Blackwell publication company, UK.Google Scholar
- Harvestplus. (2016). Biofortified Staple Food Crops: Who Is Growing What? file:///C:/Users/Aditya/Downloads/HarvestPlus_BiofortifiedCropMap_2016.pdf. Accessed 15 Nov 2016.Google Scholar
- Howeler, R., Lutaladio, N., & Thomson, G. (2013). Save and grow: Cassava. A guide for sustainable production and intensification. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization Of The United Nations.Google Scholar
- Jones, W. O. (1959). Manioc in Africa. Stanford: Stanford University Press, California.Google Scholar
- Kleih, U., Phillips, D., Wordey, M. T., & Komlaga, G. (2013). Cassava market and value chain analysis: Ghana case study. Natural Resources Institute, University of Greenwich, UK. https://agriknowledge.org/downloads/cn69m4217. Accessed 10 December 2016.
- Knoth, J. (1993). Traditional storage of yams and cassava and its improvement. Eschborn: Deutsche Gesellschaft fuer Technische Zusammenarbeit GmbH.Google Scholar
- Lebot, V. (2009). Tropical root and tuber crops: Cassava, sweet potato, yams and aroids. Crop Production Science in Horticulture No. 17, CABI Publishing, Oxfordshire, UK. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0014479709007832.
- Lozano, J. C. (1986). Cassava Bacterial Blight: A Manageable Disease. Plant Disease. https://doi.org/10.1094/PD-70-1089.
- Lozano, J. C., Bellotti, A., Schoonhoven, A. van, Howeler, R., Doll, J., Howell, D., & Bates, T. (1976). Field problems in cassava. Field problems in cassava. Cali, Colombia: CIAT (International Center for Tropical Agriculture).Google Scholar
- Maraite, H. (1993). Xanthomonas campestris pathovars on cassava: Cause of bacterial blight and bacterial necrosis. In J. G. Swings & E. L. Civerolo (Eds.), Xanthomonas (pp. 18–25). London: Chapman and Hall.Google Scholar
- Muyinza, H., Nyakaisiki, E., Matovu, M., Nuwamanya, F., Wanda, K., Abass, A., & Naziri, D. (2015). Effectiveness of cassava stem pruning for inducing delay in postharvest physiological deterioration (PPD) of fresh roots. Uganda. www.rtb.cgiar.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/08/RPS/5/5.pptx Google Scholar
- Naziri, D., Quaye, W., Siwoku, B., Wanlapatit, S., Viet Phu, T., & Bennett, B. (2014). The diversity of postharvest losses in cassava value chains in selected developing countries. Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development in the Tropics and Subtropics, 115(2), 111–123.Google Scholar
- Ngudi, D. D., Kuo, Y. H., & Lambein, F. (2003). Amino acid profiles and protein quality of cooked cassava leaves or “saka-saka.” Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 83(6), 529–534. https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.1373.
- Nhassico, D., Muquingue, H., Cliff, J., Cumbana, A., & Bradbury, J. H. (2008). Rising African cassava production, diseases due to high cyanide intake and control measures. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture. https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.3337.
- Nweke, F. I., Spencer, D. S. C., & Lynam, J. K. (2002). The cassava transformation: Africa’s best-kept secret. East Lansing: Michigan State University Press.Google Scholar
- Nyaboga, E., Njiru, J., Nguu, E., Gruissem, W., Vanderschuren, H., & Tripathi, L. (2013). Unlocking the potential of tropical root crop biotechnology in east Africa by establishing a genetic transformation platform for local farmer-preferred cassava cultivars. Frontiers in Plant Science, 4, 526. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2013.00526.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Nzwalo, H., & Cliff, J. (2011). Konzo: From poverty, cassava, and cyanogen intake to toxico-nutritional neurological disease. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0001051.
- Odedina, S., Odedina, J., Ogunkoya, M., & Ojeniyi, S. (2009). Agronomic evaluation of new cassava varieties introduced to farmers in Nigeria, In African Crop Science Conference Proceedings, (pp. 77–80). Uganda: African Crop Science Society.Google Scholar
- Oguntade, A. E. (2013). Food losses in cassava and maize value chains in Nigeria: Analysis and recommendations for reduction strategies. Eschborn: Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH. Google Scholar
- Olsen, K. M., & Schaal, B. A. (1999). Evidence on the origin of cassava: phylogeography of Manihot esculenta. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 96, 5586–5591. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.96.10.5586
- Osunde, Z., & Fadeyibi, A. (2012). Storage methods and some uses of cassava in Nigeria. Continental Journal of Agricultural Science, 5(2), 12–18.Google Scholar
- Osuntokun, B. O. (1973). Ataxic neuropathy Assiciated with high cassava diets in West Africa. In B. Nestel & R. MacIntyre (Eds.), Chronic cassava toxicity (pp. 127–138). Ottawa: International Development Research Centre.Google Scholar
- Owiti, J., Grossmann, J., Gehrig, P., Dessimoz, C., Laloi, C., Hansen, M. B., et al. (2011). ITRAQ-based analysis of changes in the cassava root proteome reveals pathways associated with post-harvest physiological deterioration. Plant Journal, 67(1), 145–156. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-313X.2011.04582.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Parmar, A., Kirchner, S. M., Langguth, H., Do, T. F., & Hensel, O. (2017). Boxwood borer Heterobostrychus Brunneus (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) infesting dried cassava: A current record from southern Ethiopia. Journal of Insect Science, 17(1), 1–8. https://doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhw393.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Ray, R. C., & Swain, M. R. (2012). Bio-ethanol, bio-plastics and other fermented industrial products from cassava starch and flour. In C. M. Pace (Ed.), Cassava: Farming, uses and economic impact (pp. 1–33). New York: Nova Science Publishers, Inc..Google Scholar
- Rees, D., Westby, A., Tomlins, K. I., Oirschot, Q. E. A. Van, Chemma, M. U. ., Cornelius, E., & Amjad, M. (2012). Tropical root crops. In D. Rees, G. Farrel, & J. Orchard (Eds.), Crop Post-Harvest: Science and Technology: Perishables (first edit., pp. 392–396). Sussex: Wiley Blackwell publishing ltd. UK.Google Scholar
- Reynolds, T. W., Waddington, S. R., Anderson, C. L., Chew, A., True, Z., & Cullen, A. (2015). Environmental impacts and constraints associated with the production of major food crops in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia. Food Security, 7(4), 795–822. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12571-015-0478-1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Sánchez, T., Chávez, A. L., Ceballos, H., Rodriguez-Amaya, D. B., Nestel, P., & Ishitani, M. (2006). Reduction or delay of post-harvest physiological deterioration in cassava roots with higher carotenoid content. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 86(4), 634–639. https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.2371.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Sargent, S. A. (2002). Cassava. Horticultural Sciences Department University of Florida, Gainesville, FL. https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Richard_Visser/publication/40108387_Cassava/links/0c960525c291948fc8000000.pdf.
- Sriroth, K., Santisopasri, V., Petchalanuwat, C., Kurotjanawong, K., Piyachomkwan, K., & Oates, C. (1999). Cassava starch granule structure–function properties: Influence of time and conditions at harvest on four cultivars of cassava starch. Carbohydrate Polymers, 38(2), 161–170. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0144-8617(98)00117-9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Storey, H. (1936). Virus diseases on east African plants. VI. A progress report on studies of the disease of cassava. East African Agricultural Journal, 2, 34–39.Google Scholar
- Thylmann, D., Druzhinina, E., & Deimling, S. (2013). The ecological footprint of cassava and maize post-harvest-losses in Nigeria: A life cycle assessment. Eschborn: Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH. https://www.giz.de/fachexpertise/downloads/giz2013-en-report-food-loss-of-maize-and-cassava.pdf
- USDA. (2016). National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference Release, 28 https://ndb.nal.usda.gov/ndb/foods/show/2907?manu=&fgcd=&ds=. Accessed 30 Nov 2016.
- Yi, Y., Yulan, L., Tao, W., & Meiyun, Z. (2016). Design of the Self-Propelled Harvester for cassava. Journal of Agricultural Mechanization Research, 4, 22.Google Scholar
- Youpan, S., Yulan, L., & Danping, C. (2012). No title. Journal of Agricultural Mechanization Research, 2, 89–92.Google Scholar