Advertisement

Food Security

, Volume 8, Issue 1, pp 123–138 | Cite as

Is resilience a useful concept in the context of food security and nutrition programmes? Some conceptual and practical considerations

  • Christophe Béné
  • Derek Headey
  • Lawrence Haddad
  • Klaus von Grebmer
Original Paper

Abstract

With the developing world increasingly exposed to severe shocks and stresses, a growing number of international development agencies have now adopted resilience building as a critical long-term objective for their programmes. This paper explores the potential for this concept in the context of food security and nutrition but the reflection extends to development interventions more generally. Resilience is a rich concept, and has at its core the notion of complex dynamic processes that aptly describes the nature and dynamics of vulnerability and changes as they affect the developing world. The paper argues that the main value of resilience lies in its integrative nature, which facilitates greater collaboration between traditionally disparate groups and communities of practices. The paper also stresses some of the key conceptual and practical challenges that we face when trying to operationalise and measure resilience.

Keywords

Resilience Food security and nutrition programmes Shocks Development Measurement 

References

  1. Aldrich, D. P. (2012). Building resilience: Social capital in post-disaster recovery. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alinovi, L., D’Errico, M., Mane, E., & Romano, D. (2010). Livelihoods strategies and household resilience to food insecurity: An empirical analysis to Kenya. Paper prepared for the Conference on “Promoting Resilience through Social Protection in Sub-Saharan Africa”, organised by the European Report of Development in Dakar, Senegal, 28–30 June, 2010.Google Scholar
  3. Alliance2015 (2013). Creating Resilience through integrated multi-sectoral approach in emergency-prone areas of Wolayita zone. http://www.alliance2015.org/fileadmin/Texte__Pdfs/Text_Documents/Round_Table_Dublin_Docs_and_Photos/Alliance2015_Roundtable_Ethiopia_paper.pdf. Accessed Aug 2014.
  4. Bahadur, A. V., Ibrahim, M. & Tanner, T. (2010). The resilience renaissance? Unpacking of resilience for tackling climate change and disasters. CSR Discussion Paper No.1, Brighton: Institute of Development Studies, Strengthening Climate Resilience programme, 45 p.Google Scholar
  5. Barrett, C., & Constas, M. (2012). Resilience to avoid and escape chronic poverty: Theoretical foundations and measurement principles. Paper presented at the roundtable discussion on resilience. Washington: CARE, December 2012.Google Scholar
  6. Barrett, C. B., & Headey, D. (2014). Measuring resilience in a volatile world: A proposal for a multicountry system of sentinel sites. Conference Background Paper No.1. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. http://www.ifpri.org/publication/measuring-resilience-volatile-world.
  7. Barrett, C. B., & Maxwell, D. G. (2005). Food aid after fifty years: Recasting its role. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  8. Barthel, S., & Isendahl, C. (2013). Urban gardens, agriculture, and water management: sources of resilience for long-tem food security in cities. Ecological Economics, 86, 224–234.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bauer, J.-M., Pompili, F., Ballo, M. (2013a). Recovering from drought in Niger: Trend analysis of household coping, 2007–2011. DRAFT. Paper presented to the Expert Consultation on Resilience Measurement Related to Food Security sponsored by the Food and Agricultural Organization and World Food Program, Rome, Italy, February 19–21, 2013.Google Scholar
  10. Beck, T., & Nesmith, C. (2001). Building on poor people’s capacities: the case of common property resources in India and West Africa. World Development, 29(1), 119–133.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Béné, C. (2013). Towards a quantifiable measure of resilience. IDS Working Paper 434. Brighton: Institute of Development Studies.Google Scholar
  12. Béné, C., Steel, E., Kambala Luadia, B., & Gordon, A. (2009). Fish as the “bank in the water” - Evidence from chronic-poor communities in Congo. Food Policy, 34, 104–118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Béné, C., Evans, L., Mills, D., Ovie, S., Raji, A., Tafida, A., Kodio, A., Sinaba, F., Morand, P., Lemoalle, J., & Andrew, N. (2011). Testing resilience thinking in a poverty context: experience from the Niger river basin. Global Environmental Change, 21, 1173–1184.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Béné, C., Godfrey-Wood, R., Newsham, A., & Davies, M. (2012). Resilience: New utopia or new tyranny? - Reflection about the potentials and limits of the concept of resilience in relation to vulnerability reduction programmes. IDS Working Paper 405. Brighton: Institute of Development Studies.Google Scholar
  15. Béné, C., Newsham, A., Davies, M., Ulrichs, M., & Godfrey-Wood, R. (2014a). Resilience, poverty and development. Journal of International Development, 26, 598–623.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Béné, C., Cannon, T., Gupte, J., Metha, L., & Tanner, T. (2014b). Exploring the potential and limits of the resilience agenda in rapidly urbanising contexts. Evidence report No.63. Policy Anticipation, Response and Evaluation. Brighton: Institute of Development Studies.Google Scholar
  17. Béné, C., Frankenberger, T., Nelson, S. (2015). Design, monitoring and evaluation of resilience interventions: conceptual and empirical considerations. IDS Working Paper no.459, 23 p.Google Scholar
  18. Béné, C., Al-Hassan, R. M., Amarasinghe, O., Fong, P., Ocran, J., Onumah, E., Ratuniata, R., Van Tuyen, T., McGregor, J. A, & Mills, D. J. (2016). Is resilience socially constructed? Empirical evidence from Fiji, Ghana, Sri Lanka, and Vietnam. Global Environmental Changes (in press)Google Scholar
  19. Berkes, F., & Folke, C. (Eds.). (1998). Linking social and ecological systems management practices and social mechanisms for building resilience. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  20. Berkes, F., & Ross, H. (2013). Community resilience: toward an integrated approach. Society & Natural Resources, 26, 5–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Berkes, F., Colding, J., & Folke, C. (2003). Navigating social-ecological systems: Building resilience for complexity and change. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  22. Black, R. E., Lindsay, H. A., Zulfiqar, A. B., Caulfield, L. C., de Onis, M., Ezzati, M., Mathers, C., & Rivera, J. (2008). Maternal and child undernutrition: global and regional exposures and health consequences. The Lancet, 371(9608), 243–260.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Block, S. A., Kiess, L., Webb, P., Kosen, S., Moench-Pfanner, R., Bloem, M. W., & Timmer, C. P. (2004). Macro shocks and micro outcomes: child nutrition during Indonesia’s crisis. Economics and Human Biology, 2(1), 21–44.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Bloem, M. W., Moench-Pfanner, R., & Panagides, D. (2003). Health & nutritional surveillance for development. Singapore: Helen Keller Worldwide.Google Scholar
  25. Boyd, E., Osbahr, H., Ericksen, P., Tompkins, E., Lemos, M. C., & Miller, F. (2008). Resilience and ‘Climatizing’ development: examples and policy implications. Development, 51(3), 390–396.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Brigulio, L., Cordina, G., Bujeda, S., & Farrugia, N. (2005). Conceptualizing and measuring economic resilience. Economic Department, University of Malta.Google Scholar
  27. Caldera, T., Palma, L., Penayo, U., & Kullgren, G. (2001). Psychological impact of the hurricane Mitch in Nicaragua. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 36, 108–114.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Callister, W. D., & Rethwisch, D. G. (2012). Fundamentals of materials science and engineering – an integrated approach (4th ed.). Hoboken: John Wiley and Sons. 910 p.Google Scholar
  29. Cannon, T., & Muller-Mahn, D. (2010). Vulnerability, resilience and development discourses in context of climate change. Natural Hazards, 55(3), 621–635.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. CARE (2013). Integrated food security programming, cooperative for assistance and relief everywhere. http://www.care.org/care%E2%80%99s-integrated-food-security-programming.
  31. Carpenter, S., Walker, B., Anderies, J. M., & Abel, N. (2001). From metaphor to measurement: resilience of what to what? Ecosystems, 4(8), 765–781.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Carter, M., Little, P., Mogues, T., & Negatu, W. (2007). Poverty traps and natural disasters in Ethiopia and Honduras. World Development, 35(5), 835–856.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Chapin, F. S., III, Kofinas, G. P., & Folke, C. (Eds.). (2009). Principles of ecosystem stewardship: Resilience-based resource management in a changing world. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  34. Christiaensen, L., & Subbarao, K. (2004). Toward an understanding of household vulnerability in rural Kenya. World Bank Policy Research Working Paper 3326. Washington DC: World Bank.Google Scholar
  35. Ciani, F., & Romano, D. (2013). Testing for household resilience to food insecurity: Evidence from Nicaragua. Department of Economics and Management: University of Florence. Job Market Paper available at: http://www.unifi.it/drpeps/upload/sub/CIANI-Job%20Market%20Paper.pdf. Accessed Aug 2013.
  36. Coll-Black, S., Gilligan, D. O., Hoddinott, J., Kumar, N., Seyoum Taffesse, A., & Wiseman, W. (2012). Targeting food security interventions in Ethiopia: The productive safety net programme. In P. Dorosh & S. Rashid (Eds.), Food and agriculture in Ethiopia: Progress and policy challenges. Washington: International Food and Policy Research Institute.Google Scholar
  37. Constas, M., Frankenberger, T. R., Hoddinott, J. (2013). Resilience measurement principles: Toward an agenda for measurement design. Resilience Measurement Technical Working Group, FSiN Technical Series Paper No.1, World Food Program and Food and Agriculture Organization, 52 p.Google Scholar
  38. Constas, M., Frankenberger, T. R., Hoddinott, J., Mock, N., Romano, D., Béné, C., & Maxwell, D. (2014). A common analytical model for resilience measurement - causal framework and methodological options. Resilience Measurement Technical Working Group, FSiN Technical Series Paper No. 2, World Food Program and Food and Agriculture Organization, 52 p.Google Scholar
  39. Coulthard, S. (2011). More than just access to fish: the pros and cons of fisher participation in a customary marine tenure (Padu) system under pressure. Marine Policy, 35, 405–412.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Cutter, S., Barnes, L., Berry, M., Burton, C., Evans, E., Tate, E., & Webb, J. (2008). A place-based model for understanding community resilience to natural disasters. Global Environmental Change, 18(4), 598–606.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Davidson, D. J. (2010). The applicability of the concept of resilience to social systems: some sources of optimism and nagging doubts. Society & Natural Resources, 23(12), 1135–1149.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Davies, S. (1996). Adaptable livelihoods: Coping with food insecurity in the Malian Sahel. Basingstoke: Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Davies, M., Béné, C., Arnall, A., Tanner, T., Newsham, A., & Coirolo, C. (2013). Promoting resilient livelihoods through adaptive social protection: lessons from 124 programmes in South Asia. Development Policy Review, 31(1), 27–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. de Zeeuw, H., van Veenhuizen, R., & Dubbeling, M. (2011). The role of urban agriculture in building resilient cities in developing countries. Journal of Agricultural Science, 149(S1), 153–163.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Dercon, S. (1996). Risk. crop choice, and savings: evidence from Tanzania. Economic Development and Cultural Change, 44(3), 485–513.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Dercon, S. (2005). Risk, poverty and vulnerability in Africa. Journal of African Economies, 14(4), 483–488.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Dercon, S., & Christiaensen, L. (2011). Consumption risk, technology adoption, and poverty traps: Evidence from Ethiopia. Washington: World Bank, Africa Region, Poverty Reduction and Economic Management Unit 2.Google Scholar
  48. Dercon, S., & Hoddinott, J. (2004). Health, shocks, and poverty persistence. In S. Dercon (Ed.), Insurance against poverty (pp. 124–136). Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Dercon, S., Hoddinott, J., & Woldehanna, T. (2005). Shocks and consumption in 15 Ethiopian Villages, 1999–2004. Journal of African Economies, 14(4), 559–585.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Devereux, S. (2010). Seasonal food crises and social protection in Africa. In B. Harriss-White & J. Heyer (Eds.), The comparative political economy of development - Africa and South Asia (pp. 111–135). Oxon: Routledge Taylor & Francis Group.Google Scholar
  51. Devereux, S., Sabates-Wheeler, R., Tefera, M., & Taye, H. (2006). Ethiopia’s Productive Safety Net Programme (PSNP): Trends in PSNP transfers within targeted households. Brighton: Institute of Development Studies.Google Scholar
  52. Downing, T., Gitu, K. W., & Kamau, C. M. (1989). Coping with drought in Kenya: national and local strategies. Boulder, Colorado: Lynne Rienner.Google Scholar
  53. Duit, A., Galaz, V., & Eckerberg, K. (2010). Governance, complexity, and resilience. Global Environmental Change, 20(3), 363–368.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Fafchamps, M., & Lund, S. (2003). Risk-sharing networks in rural Philippines. Journal of Development Economics, 71(2), 261–287.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. FAO (2000) A humand catastrophe looms in the Horn of Africa, Special Alert No.306 FAO Global Information and Early Warning System on Food and Agriculture, Rome: Food andAgriculture Organization.Google Scholar
  56. FAO. (2013a). Resilient livelihoods – disaster risk reduction for food and nutrition security framework programme. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization. http://www.fao.org/docrep/015/i2540e/i2540e00.pdf.Google Scholar
  57. FAO (2013b). Strengthening the links between resilience and nutrition in food and agriculture - draft. Discussion paper. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization.Google Scholar
  58. Folke, C. (2006). Resilience: the emergence of a perspective for social-ecological systems analyses. Global Environmental Change, 16(3), 253–267.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Frankenberger, T., & Nelson, S. (2013a). Background paper for the expert consultation on resilience measurement for food security. TANGO International - Expert Consultation on Resilience Measurement Related to Food Security sponsored by the Food and Agricultural Organization and World Food Program, Rome, Italy, February 19–21, 2013.Google Scholar
  60. Frankenberger, T., & Nelson S. (2013b). Summary of the Expert Consultation on Resilience Measurement for Food Security. TANGO International - Expert Consultation on Resilience Measurement Related to Food Security sponsored by the Food and Agricultural Organization and World Food Program, Rome, Italy, February 19–21, 2013Google Scholar
  61. GEF (2014). GEF to launch innovative food security initiative in Africa. Global Environment Facility http://www.thegef.org/gef/node/10548. Accessed May 2014
  62. Gilligan, D., Hoddinott, J., & Seyoum Taffesse, A. (2009). The impact of Ethiopia’s productive safety net programme and its linkages. Journal of Development Studies, 45, 1684–1706.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Glantz, M. D., & Johnson, J. L. (1996). Resilience and development. New York: Kluwer.Google Scholar
  64. Hashemi, S. M., & Umaira, W. (2011). New pathways for the poorest: The Graduation model from BRAC. Centre for Social Protection, Brighton: IDS. Available at www.ids.ac.uk/go/idspublication/new-pathways-for-the-poorest-the-graduation-model-from-brac. Accessed 10 Aug 2012.
  65. Headey, D., & Ecker, O. (2013). Rethinking the measurement of food security: from first principles to best practice. Food Security, 5, 327–343.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Headey, D., & Kennedy, A. (2011). Enhancing resilience in the horn of Africa: Synthesis of an evidence based workshop. Washington DC: USAID and IFPRI.Google Scholar
  67. Headey, D., Taffesse, A. S., & You, L. (2014). Diversification and development in pastoralist Ethiopia. World Development, 56, 200–213.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. HKI (2014). Food and nutrition surveillance project. New York: Helen Keller International, http://www.hki.org/reducing-malnutrition/nutrition-surveillance/. Accessed Feb. 2014
  69. Hoddinott, J. (2006). Shocks and their consequences across and within households in Rural Zimbabwe. Journal of Development Studies, 42(3), 301–321.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Hoddinott, J. (2014). Looking at development through a resilience lens. In S. Fan & R. Pandya-Lorch (Eds.), Resilience. Resilience: International Food Policy Research Institute.Google Scholar
  71. Holling, C. S. (1973). Resilience and stability of ecological systems. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 4, 2–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Hornborg, A. (2009). Zero-sum world: challenges in conceptualizing environmental load displacement and ecologically unequal exchange in the world-system. International Journal of Comparative Sociology, 50(3–4), 237–262. Available at www.lucid.lu.se/Hornborg__2009__zero_sum_world.pdf. Accessed 11 Aug 2012.
  73. Hughes, K. (2012). Oxfam’s attempt to measure resilience. Power Point presentation at the American Evaluation Association (AEA) Meeting, October 2012.Google Scholar
  74. Hulme, D., & Moore, K. (2007). Assisting the poorest in Bangladesh: Lessons from BRAC’s ‘Targeting the ultra-poor’ programme. Brooks World Poverty Institute, Manchester: BWPI, available at www.bwpi.manchester.ac.uk/resources/Working-Papers/bwpi-wp-0107.pdf. Accessed 10 Aug 2012.
  75. IFRC. (2004). World Disaster Report - focus on community resilience. Geneva: International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies. 232 p.Google Scholar
  76. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change IPCC. (2012). Managing the risks of extreme events and disasters to advance climate change adaptation. In C. B. Field, V. Barros, T. F. Stocker, D. Qin, D. J. Dokken, K. L. Ebi, M. D. Mastrandrea, K. J. Mach, G.-K. Plattner, S. K. Allen, M. Tignor, & P. M. Midgley (Eds.), A special report of working groups I and II of the intergovernmental panel on climate change. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  77. Kabeer, N. (2002). Safety nets and opportunity ladders: Addressing vulnerability and enhancing productivity in South Asia. Working Paper 159. London: Overseas Development Institute.Google Scholar
  78. Kazianga, H., & Udry, C. (2004). Consumption smoothing? Livestock, insurance and drought in rural Burkina Faso. Center Discussion Paper No. 898. New Haven: Yale University, Economic Growth Center.Google Scholar
  79. Klein, R. J. T., Smit, M. J., Goosen, H., & Hulsbergen, C. H. (1998). Resilience and vulnerability: coastal dynamics or Dutch dikes? The Geographical Journal, 164(3), 259–268.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Klein, R. J. T., Nicholls, R. J., & Thomalla, F. (2003). Resilience to natural hazards: how useful is this concept? Environmental Hazards, 5, 35–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Kurikose, A., Heltberg, R., Wiseman, W., Costella, C., Ciprik, R., & Cornelius, S. (2012). Climate responsive social protection: Background paper for the World Bank’s new Social Protection Strategy. Washington DC: World Bank Social.Google Scholar
  82. Kurosaki, T., & Fafchamps, M. (2002). Insurance market efficiency and crop choices in Pakistan. Journal of Development Economics, 67(2), 49–453.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Kurz, J., & Langworthy, M. (2013). Identifying reliable determinant of resilience. Paper presented to the Expert Consultation on Resilience Measurement Related to Food Security sponsored by the Food and Agricultural Organization and World Food Program, February 19–21, 2013. Rome, Italy.Google Scholar
  84. Leach, M. (2008). Re-framing resilience: A symposium report. STEPS Working Paper 13. Brighton: IDS.Google Scholar
  85. Levine, S., Pain, A., Baley, S., & Fan, L. (2012). The relevance of ‘resilience’? HPG Policy Brief 49. London: Overseas Development Institute, Humanitarian Policy Group.Google Scholar
  86. Lybbert, T. J., Barrett, C. B., Desta, S., & Coppock, D. L. (2004). Stochastic wealth dynamics and risk management among a poor population. The Economic Journal, 114(498), 750–777.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Maleta, K., Virtanen, S. M., Espo, M., Kulmala, T., & Ashorn, P. (2003). Seasonality of growth and the relationship between weight and height gain in children under three years of age in rural Malawi. Acta Paediatrica, 92, 491–497.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Martin-Breen, P., & Anderies, J. M. (2011). Resilience: A literature review. Brighton: Institute of Development Studies, Resource Alliance and Rockefeller Foundation for the Bellagio Initiative.Google Scholar
  89. Maxwell, D., & Cadwell, R. (2008). The scoping strategy index: field methods manual. Second Edition: Cooperative for Assistance and Relief Everywhere (CARE).Google Scholar
  90. Mercy Corps (2012). Food health and nutrition technical support unit food security mercy corps. http://www.mercycorps.org.uk/sites/default/files/tsu_food_external_r2.pdf. Accessed Sept 2014
  91. Moser, C., Norton, A., Stein, A. & Georgieva, S. (2010). Pro-poor adaptation to climate change in urban centers: case studies of vulnerability and resilience in Kenya and Nicaragua. Report No.54947-GLB, World Bank, Social Development Department, 96 p.Google Scholar
  92. Nelson, D. R., Adger, W. N., & Brown, K. (2007). Adaptation to environmental change: contributions of a resilience framework. Annual Review of Environment and Resources, 32(1), 395–419.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Norris, F., Stevens, S., Pfefferbaum, B., Wyche, K., & Pfefferbaum, R. (2008). Community resilience as metaphor, theory, set of capacities, and strategy for disaster readiness. American Journal of Community Psychology, 41, 127–150.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. O’Brien, K. (2012). Global environmental change: from adaptation to deliberate transformation. Progress in Human Geography, 36, 667–676.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Osbahr, H. (2007). Building resilience: Adaptation mechanisms and mainstreaming for the poor’. Occasional Paper for the Human Development Report 2007/08. Fighting climate change: Human Solidarity in a Divided World, Human Development Report Office, UNDP.Google Scholar
  96. Oviedo, A. M., & Moroz, H. (2014). A review of the ex post and ex ante impacts of risk. Background Paper for the World Development Report 2014. Washington DC: World Bank.Google Scholar
  97. Pain, A., & Levine, S. (2012). A conceptual analysis of livelihoods and resilience: Addressing the ‘insecurity of agency’. HPG Working Paper. London: Overseas Development Institute, Humanitarian Policy Group.Google Scholar
  98. Pelham, L., Clay, E., & Braunholz, T. (2011). Natural disasters: What is the role for social safety nets? Washington DC: World Bank, Social Protection and Labor.Google Scholar
  99. Pelling, M., & Manuel-Navarrete, D. (2011). From resilience to transformation: the adaptive cycle in two Mexican urban centers. Ecology and Society, 16(2), 11.Google Scholar
  100. Pickett, S. T., Cadenasso, M. L., & Grove, J. M. (2004). Resilient cities: meaning, models, and metaphor for integrating the ecological, socio-economic and planning realms. Landscape and Urban Planning, 69, 369–384.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Piperata, B. A., Schmeer, K. K., Hadley, C., & Ritchie-Ewing, G. (2013). Dietary inequalities of mother-child pairs in the rural Amazon: evidence of maternal-child buffering? Social Science & Medicine, 96, 183–191.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Rayco-Solon, P., Fulford, A. J., & Prentice, A. M. (2002). Differential effects of seasonality on preterm birth and intrauterine growth restriction in rural Africans. American Society for Clinical Nutrition, 81(1), 134–139.Google Scholar
  103. Reddy, S. C., & Chakravarty, S. P. (1999). Forest dependence and income distribution in a subsistence economy: evidence from India. World Development, 27(7), 1141–1149.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Robinson, L. W., & Berkes, F. (2011). Multi-level participation for building adaptive capacity: formal agency-community interactions in northern Kenya. Global Environmental Change, 21, 1185–1194.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Ruel, M. T., Menon, P., Habicht, J.-P., Loechl, C., Bergeron, G., Pelto, G., Arimond, M., Maluccio, J., Michaud, L., & Hankebo, B. (2008). Age-based preventive targeting of food assistance and behavior change and communication for reduction of childhood undernutrition in Haiti: a cluster randomized trial. The Lancet, 371, 588–895.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Schwarz, A.-M., Béné, C., Bennett, G., Boso, D., Hilly, Z., Paul, C., Posala, R., Sibiti, S., & Andrew, N. (2011). Vulnerability and resilience of rural remote communities to shocks and global changes: empirical analysis from the Solomon Islands. Global Environmental Change, 21(3), 1128–1140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC) and World Food Programme (WFP) (2011). Building resilience: Bridging food security, climate change adaptation and disaster risk reduction. http://www.preventionweb.net/files/24163_workshopbuildingresiliencecasestudi.pdf. Accessed 11 Aug 2012.
  108. Tyler, S., & Moench, M. (2012). A framework for urban climate resilience. Climate and Development, 4(4), 311–326.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. USAID (2012). Building resilience to recurrent crisis USAID policy and program guidance. US Agency for International Development, 32 p.Google Scholar
  110. Vaitla, B., Tesfay, G., Rounseville, M., & Maxwell, D. (2012). Resilience and livelihoods change in Tigray, Ethiopia. Feinstein International Center, Tufts University.Google Scholar
  111. VLF (2011). If we do not join hands. View from the front line. Global Network for civil Society Organizations for Disaster Reduction.Google Scholar
  112. von Grebmer, K., Headey, D., Béné, C., Haddad, L., et al. (2013). 2013 global hunger index: The challenge of hunger: Building resilience to achieve food and nutrition security. Bonn: Welthungerhilfe, International Food Policy Research Institute, and Concern Worldwide.Google Scholar
  113. Vos, T., Carter, R., Barendregt, J., Mihalopoulos, C., Veerman, J. L., Magnus, A., Cobiac, L., Bertram, M., & Wallace, A. (2010). Assessing cost-effectiveness in prevention (ACE-Prevention): Final report. Melbourne: University of Queensland,Brisbane and Deakin University.Google Scholar
  114. Walker, B., Carpenter, S., Anderies, J., Abel, N., Cumming, G. S., Janssen, M., Lebel, L. N. J., Peterson, G. D., & Pritchard, R. (2002). Resilience management in social-ecological systems: a working hypothesis for a participatory approach. Conservation Ecology, 6(1), 14.Google Scholar
  115. Walker, B., Holling, C. S., Carpenter, S. R., & Kinzig, A. (2004). Resilience, adaptability and transformability in social-ecological systems. Ecology and Society, 9(2), 5.Google Scholar
  116. Walker, B. H., Anderies, J. M., Kinzig, A. P., & Ryan, P. (2006). Exploring resilience in social-ecological systems through comparative studies and theory development: introduction to the special issue. Ecology and Society, 11(1), 12.Google Scholar
  117. WCDR (2005). Building the resilience of nations and communities to disasters. World Conference on Disaster Reduction 18–22 January 2005, Kobe, Japan. United Nations International Strategy for Disaster ReductionGoogle Scholar
  118. Wisner, B., Blaikie, P., Cannon, T., & Davis, I. (2004). At risk: Natural hazards, people’s vulnerability, and disasters. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  119. World Bank. (2011). Social protection and climate resilience – Report from an international workshop (Addis Ababa 14–17 March 2011). Washington DC: World Bank.Google Scholar
  120. World Bank. (2012). Building resilient communities: Risk management and response to natural disasters through social funds and community-driven development operations. Washington DC: World Bank.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht and International Society for Plant Pathology 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Christophe Béné
    • 1
    • 3
  • Derek Headey
    • 2
  • Lawrence Haddad
    • 1
  • Klaus von Grebmer
    • 2
  1. 1.Institute of Development StudiesUniversity of SussexBrightonUK
  2. 2.International Food Policy Research InstituteWashingtonUSA
  3. 3.Decision and Policy Analysis ProgrammeInternational Center for Tropical AgricultureCaliColombia

Personalised recommendations