Anatomy of the coronary artery and cardiac vein in the quail ventricle: patterns are distinct from those in mouse and human hearts
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Coronary vessel development has been investigated in avian and mouse embryonic hearts. Quail embryos are a useful tool to examine vascular development, particularly because the QH1 antibody and transgenic quail line, Tg (tie1:H2B-eYFP), are useful to trace endothelial cells. However, there are only a few descriptions of the quail coronary vessels. Using ink injection coronary angiography, we examined the course of coronary vessels in the fetal quail heart. The major coronary arteries were the right and left septal arteries, which, respectively, branched off from the right and left coronary stems. The right septal artery ran posteriorly (dorsally) and penetrated the ventricular free wall to distribute to the posterior surface of the ventricles. The left septal artery ran anteriorly (ventrally) and penetrated the ventricular free wall to distribute to the anterior surface of the ventricles. The right and left circumflex arteries were directed posteriorly along the atrioventricular sulci. The cardiac veins consisted of three major tributaries: the middle, great, and anterior cardiac veins. The middle cardiac vein ascended along the posterior interventricular sulcus and emptied into the right atrium. The great cardiac vein ran along the anterior interventricular sulcus, entered the space between the left atrium and conus arteriosus and emptied into the right atrium behind the aortic bulb. The anterior cardiac vein drained the anterior surface of the right ventricle and connected to the anterior base of the right atrium. The course of coronary vessels in the quail heart was basically the same as that observed in chick but was different from those of mouse and human.
KeywordsAnatomy Avian species Cardiac vein Coronary artery Quail heart
The authors thank S. Uoya for preparing the manuscript. This work was supported by JSPS Grant-in-Aid Scientific Research ©) 16K08450.
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Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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