Pleiotropic and retinoprotective functions of PACAP
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Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a 27- or 38-amino acid neuropeptide, which belongs to the vasoactive intestinal polypeptide/glucagon/secretin family. PACAP and its three receptor subtypes are expressed in neural tissues of the eye, including the retina, cornea and lacrimal gland, and PACAP is known to exert pleiotropic effects throughout the central nervous system. This review provides an overview of current knowledge regarding the cell protective effects, mechanisms of action and therapeutic potential of PACAP in response to several types of eye injury.
KeywordsPACAP Neurotropic function Retinoprotection Dry eye
The authors would like to thank Dr. Rakwal Randeep and Ms. Junko Shibato for the CRMP2 research described in this paper. They also thank Drs. Dora Reglodi of Pecs University in Hungary and Hitoshi Hashimoto of Osaka University in Japan for their help in dry eye research.
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Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
JSPS KAKENHI grants 23249079, 15K15670, 16H02684.
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