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Anatomical Science International

, Volume 92, Issue 3, pp 352–363 | Cite as

Morphological features of the tongue and laryngeal entrance in two predatory birds with similar feeding preferences: common kestrel (Falco tinnunculus) and Hume’s tawny owl (Strix butleri)

  • Mohamed M. A. AbumandourEmail author
  • Neveen E. R. El-Bakary
Original Article

Abstract

The aim of this investigation was to describe the morphological characters of the tongue of two predatory birds with similar feeding preferences, i.e. the common kestrel and Hume’s tawny owl. Descriptive information on the lingual morphology of these two birds, particularly Hume’s tawny owl, is incomplete. We found that the lingual apex of the owl has an oval, concave, shovel-like form with a bifid lingual tip, while that of the kestrel has the shape of a horny tip-like spoon with a central process in addition to there being several filiform-like papillae on the dorsal surface of the apex and body. In the owl, the dorsal surface of the apex and body is subdivided into four U-shaped regions: lingual tip, two lateral regions and a median region. The two lateral regions are characterized by the presence of papillae and several openings of lingual glands, while the median region carries filiform-like papillae. In both birds, the papillary crest is located between the body and root. In the kestrel, there is an additional row of papillae rostral to crest, while in the owl there is a rostral lateral extension of papillae on the lateral lingual surface so the distribution pattern has a W-shape. In the kestrel, the posterior part of lingual body has several openings of glands, while the root lacks glands completely, although it has many taste buds. In the owl, the lingual root is folded and has a large number of gland openings. In the kestrel caudally to the glottis, there are two paramedian transverse rows of pharyngeal papillae with a pair of median huge papillae, while in the owl, there is only one transverse row of papillae. The dorsal and ventral lingual surfaces of both birds are lined with non-keratinized stratified squamous epithelium.

Keywords

Anatomy Scanning electron microscopy Tongue Common kestrel Hume’s tawny owl 

Notes

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

No conflict of interest.

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Copyright information

© Japanese Association of Anatomists 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mohamed M. A. Abumandour
    • 1
    Email author
  • Neveen E. R. El-Bakary
    • 2
  1. 1.Anatomy and Embryology Department, Faculty of Veterinary MedicineAlexandria UniversityRashid, EdfinaEgypt
  2. 2.Department of Zoology, Faculty of ScienceDamietta UniversityDamiettaEgypt

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