A comparative study of international branch campuses in Malaysia, Singapore, China, and South Korea: regulation, governance, and quality assurance
Malaysia, Singapore, China, and South Korea employed branch campuses as a means to develop and promote economic growth and global competitiveness. The aim of this study was to explore national policies and regulatory frameworks for international branch campuses in the four key nations identified above. The development of internal quality assurance mechanisms and external review approaches in international branch campuses were investigated, via in-depth interview and document analysis. The study presented three major findings. First, an inclusive model of internal quality has been developed in international branch campuses found in the four nations. Second, the international branch campuses’ external quality assurance approaches, in the four countries, were diverse and included exemption, reliance on home country accreditation, duplication, and international accreditation. Third, South Korea and Singapore were more closely aligned to liberal regulation with minimal quality assurance, whereas Malaysia and China were in the category of liberal regulation and restrict regulation, respectively, but with comprehensive quality assurance process.
KeywordsInternational branch campus Quality assurance Regulation Governance
The funding was provided by Ministry of Science and Technology, Taiwan (Grant No. MOST 103-2410-H-030-052).
- Altbach, P. (2010). Why branch campuses may be unsustainable. International Higher Education, 58(Winter), 2–3.Google Scholar
- Altbach, P. (2011). Is there a future for branch campus? International Higher Education, 65(Fall), 7–10.Google Scholar
- American Council on Education (ACE). (2009). U.S. branch campuses abroad. Washington, DC: ACE.Google Scholar
- Asia Pacific Quality Network (APQN). (2006). UNESCO–APQN toolkit: Regulating the quality of cross-border education. Bangkok: APQN.Google Scholar
- Bazeley, P., & Jackson, K. (2013). Qualitative data analysis with NVivo. Thousand Oaks: Sage.Google Scholar
- Becker, R. (2009). International branch campuses: Markets and strategies. London: The Observatory on Borderless Higher Education.Google Scholar
- Byun, K., & You, E. (2014). National policy and challenges for foreign branch campuses: South Korea’s Case. Presented in the 2014 International Seminar of Development models and Policy Making of Branch Campuses in Asia. Taipei: Fu Jen Catholic University.Google Scholar
- Cao, Y. (2011). Branch campuses in Asia and the Pacific: Definitions, challenges and strategies. Comparative & International Higher Education, 3, 8–10.Google Scholar
- Cohen, L., Manion, L., & Morrison, K. (2007). Research methods in education. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Council for Higher Education Accreditation (CHEA). (2001). Principles for United States accreditors working internationally. http://www.chea.org/pdf/internatl_principles_01.pdf. Accessed 4 Mar 2016.
- Council for Higher Education Accreditation (CHEA). (2002). International quality review and accreditation: The role of U.S. recognized accrediting organizations. https://www.chea.org/international-quality-review-and-accreditation-role-us-recognized-accrediting-organizations. Accessed 4 Mar 2016.
- Council for Private Education (CPE). (2015a). Registration requirements, enhanced registration framework (ERF). Retrieved 29 July 2015, from https://www.cpe.gov.sg/for-peis/enhanced-registration-framework-erf/registration-requirements. Accessed 29 July 2015.
- Council for Private Education (CPE). (2015b). Registration status of Private Education Institutions (PEIs) in Singapore. https://www.cpe.gov.sg/for-students/registration-status-of-private-education-institutions-peis-in-singapore. Accessed 26 July 2015.
- Council for Private Education (CPE). (2016). Website from https://www.cpe.gov.sg/. Accessed 30 Nov 2017.
- Edwards, R., Crosing, G., & Lim, N. C. (2013). Organizational structures for international universities: Implications for campus autonomy, academic freedom, collegiality and conflict. Journal of Studies in International Education, 18(2), 180–194. https://doi.org/10.1177/1028315313493182.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- European Association for Quality Assurance in Higher Education (ENQA). (2015). A toolkit for quality assurance agencies. Brussels: ENQA.Google Scholar
- Garrett, R., Kinser, K., Lane, J. E., & Merola, R. (2016). International branch campuses—Trends and developments 2016. London: OBHE.Google Scholar
- Harvey, L. (2004). Quality assurance in higher education: Some international trends. https://www.qualityresearchinternational.com/Harvey%20papers/Harvey%202004%20QA%20in%20HE%20some%20international%20trends.pdf. Accessed 26 July 2015.
- Hou, A. Y. C. (2014). Quality in cross-border higher education and challenges for the internationalization of national quality assurance agencies in the Asia–Pacific region–Taiwan experience. Studies in Higher Education, 39(6), 152–163.Google Scholar
- Institute of Development Study (2013). Learning about qualitative document analysis. https://opendocs.ids.ac.uk/opendocs/bitstream/handle/123456789/2989/PP%20InBrief%2013%20QDA%20FINAL2.pdf?sequence=4. Accessed 1 June 2018.
- International Network for Quality assurance Agencies in Higher Education (INQAAHE). (2018). Quality glossary. http://www.qualityresearchinternational.com/glossary/assurance.htm. Accessed 1 June 2018.
- Kinser, K. (2011). Multinational quality assurance. In J. E. Lane & K. Kinser (Eds.), Multinational colleges and universities: Leading, governing and managing international branch campuses (pp. 53–64). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
- Kinser, K., & Lane, J. (2013). The problems with cross-border quality assurance. International Higher Education, 73(fall), 18–19.Google Scholar
- Knight, J. (2013). International education hubs. Singapore: Springer.Google Scholar
- Lane, J. E. (2011). Global expansion of international branch campuses: managerial and leadership challenges. In J. E. Lane & K. Kinser (Eds.), Multinational colleges and universities: Leading, governing and managing international branch campuses (pp. 5–17). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
- Lane, J. E. (2013). The QA of Trans-border education: From quality providers to quality assured provision. Keynote Speech of INQAAHE 2013 Conference.Google Scholar
- Laws of Malaysia (2015). Private Higher Educational Institutions Act 1996. http://www.agc.gov.my/agcportal/uploads/files/Publications/LOM/EN/Act%20555%20-%20Private%20Higher%20Educational%20Institutions%20Act%201996%20(As%20at%201%20December%202015).pdf. Accessed 1 June 2018.
- Malaysian Quality Assurance Agency (MQA). (2009). Code of Practice for Institutional Audit (COPIA) and Code of Practice for Programme Accreditation (COPPA). Kuala Lumpur: MQA.Google Scholar
- McBurnie, G., & Ziguras, C. (2007). Transnational education: Issues and trends in offshore higher education. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Miles, M., & Huberman, M. (1994). Qualitative data analysis (2nd edn.). Beverly Hills: Sage.Google Scholar
- Ministry of Education and Human Resources Development. (2005). Brain Korea 21. http://unpan1.un.org/intradoc/groups/public/documents/APCITY/UNPAN015416.pdf. Accessed 1 June 2018.
- Ministry of Education of the People’s Republic of China (2010). Long-term education Reform and development plan (2010–2020). http://www.gov.cn/jrzg/2010-07/29/content_1667143.htm. Accessed 26 July 2015.
- Ministry of Education of the People’s Republic of China. (2015). Administrative measures for diplomas and degree-awarding information issued. https://hk.lexiscn.com/latest_message.php?access=show_detail&id=179608. Accessed 26 July 2015.
- Ministry of Education, Science and Technology in Korea (MEST). (2009). Development Plan for a Global University Campus at the Incheon Songdo Free Economic Zone. http://english.mest.go.kr/web/1713/en/board/enview.do?bbsId=262&boardSeq=1820&mode=view. Accessed 26 Apr 2016.
- Mok, K. H. (2011). Regional responses to global challenges: the assertion of soft power and changing university governance in Singapore, Hong Kong and Malaysia. In R. King, S. Marginson & R. Naidoo (Eds.), Handbook on globalization and higher education (pp. 179–196). Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing Limited.Google Scholar
- Monash University. (2014). Annual report. KL: Monash University.Google Scholar
- NEASC & CIHE. (2003). Principles of good practice in overseas international education programs for non-U.S. nationals. https://cihe.neasc.org/sites/cihe.neasc.org/downloads/POLICIES/Pp47_Overseas_programs_for_non-US_Nationals.pdf. Accessed 20 Dec 2017.
- Patton, M. Q. (2001). Qualitative evaluation and research methods. Thousand Oaks: Sage.Google Scholar
- Quality Assurance Agency for Higher Education (QAA). (2010). Audit of Oversea Provision in Malaysia. London: QAA.Google Scholar
- Quality Assurance Agency for Higher Education (QAA). (2015). UK Quality code for higher education part B: Assuring and enhancing academic quality. http://www.qaa.ac.uk/assuring-standards-and-quality/the-quality-code/quality-code-part-b. Accessed 1 June 2017.
- Quality Assurance Agency for Higher Education (QAA). (2016). Higher education review of the University of Nottingham. http://www.qaa.ac.uk/docs/qaa/reports/university-of-nottingham-her-16.pdf?sfvrsn=57a8f481_4. Accessed 1 June 2017.
- Shen, S. (2014). Faculty resources, curriculum design and student recruitment at international branch campuses. In Presented in the 2014 International Seminar of Development models and Policy Making of Branch Campuses in Asia. Taipei: Fu Jen Catholic University.Google Scholar
- Sidhu, G. K., & Kaur, S. (2011). Enhancing global competence in higher education: Malaysia’s strategic initiatives. In S. Marginson, S. Kaur & E. Sawir (Eds.), Higher education in the Asia–Pacific (pp. 219–236). Dordrecht: Springer.Google Scholar
- Songdo Global University (2014). Songdo Global University campus. http://www.mooyoung.com/eng/board/project/board_view.asp?num=1218. Accessed 20 July 2018.
- Stanfield, D. A., & Wang, Q. (2012). Full-scale branch campuses in China. International Higher Education, 69(fall), 13–15.Google Scholar
- Stony Brook University. (2014). Institutional self-study report. http://www.stonybrook.edu/commcms/middlestates/files/selfstudy.pdf. Accessed 1 June 2017.
- Tan, J. (2014). Singapore as a Global Schoolhouse, 2002–2014: Policy challenges. Presented in the 2014 International Seminar of Development models and Policy Making of Branch Campuses in Asia. Taipei: Fu Jen Catholic University.Google Scholar
- The Observatory on Borderless Higher Education (OBHE). (2004). American university to open branch in one of South Korea’s ‘Special Economic Zones’. http://www.obhe.ac.uk/documents/download?id=431. Accessed 1 June 2017.
- The Observatory on Borderless Higher Education (OBHE). (2017). Branch campus listing. London: OBHE.Google Scholar
- UNESCO & OECD. (2005). Guidelines for quality provision in cross-border higher education. Paris: OECD.Google Scholar
- Verbik, L. (2006). The International Branch Campus: Models and Trends. London: OBHE.Google Scholar
- Wolff, R. (2015). Comparing quality assurance practices for international branch campuses across eight agencies: Is there common ground? http://docplayer.net/26940696-Comparing-quality-assurance-practices-for-international-branch-campuses-across-eight-agencies-is-there-common-ground-ralph-a.html. Accessed 20 July 2018.
- World Bank. (2007). Cross-border tertiary education: A way toward capacity development. Paris: OECD.Google Scholar
- Xi’an Jiaotong-Liverpool University (2016). Program management and quality assurance office. Suzhou: Xi’an Jiaotong-Liverpool University.Google Scholar
- Ziguras, C., & McBurnie, G. (2011). Transnational higher education in the Asia-Pacific region: From distance education to the branch campus. In S. Marginson, S. Kaur & E. Sawir (Eds.), Higher education in the Asia-Pacific: Strategic responses to globalization (pp. 105–122). Dordrecht: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Ziguras, C., & McBurnie, G. (2015). Governing cross–border higher education. London: Routledge.Google Scholar