The effectiveness of private tutoring: students’ perceptions in comparison with mainstream schooling in Hong Kong
- 2k Downloads
This paper examines Hong Kong students’ perceptions on the effectiveness of private supplementary tutoring relative to mainstream schooling. Drawing on survey and interview data, it shows that large proportions of secondary school students receive private tutoring. Students generally perceive private tutoring and private tutors to be more effective in the provision of examination support compared with mainstream schooling and teachers. However, perceptions vary according to students’ self-reported academic levels and motives for taking private tutoring. The operations of the parallel sector of private tutoring have significant implications for the nature of schooling and therefore need to be considered by teachers and school administrators. The Hong Kong data contribute to the international analysis of private tutoring and add a significant component to the wider conceptual literature.
KeywordsPrivate tutoring Shadow education Perceived effectiveness Examinations
The research reported in this paper was funded by the General Research Fund (GRF) of the Hong Kong Research Grants Council (RGC), Project 741111. The authors also acknowledge inputs from Emily Mang and Nutsa Kobakhidze.
- Baker, D. P., & LeTendre, G. K. (2005). National differences, global similarities: World culture and the future of schooling. Stanford: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
- Barrow, C. (2012). The modern private super-tutor. In Spear’s. 20 April 2012. Accessed June 11, 2013, from http://www.spearswms.com/education/31795/the-modern-private-tutor.thtml.
- Bray, M. (1999). The shadow education system: Private tutoring and its implications for planners. Paris: UNESCO International Institute for Educational Planning (IIEP). Accessed June 11, 2013, from http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0018/001802/180205e.pdf.
- Bray, M. (2009). Confronting the shadow education system: What government policies for what private tutoring? Paris: UNESCO International Institute for Educational Planning (IIEP). Accessed June 11, 2013, from http://www.unesco.org/iiep/eng/publications/recent/abstracts/2009/Bray_Shadoweducation.htm.
- Bray, M., & Lykins, C. (2012). Shadow education: Private supplementary tutoring and its implications for policy makers in Asia. Mandaluyong City: Asian Development Bank, and Hong Kong: Comparative Education Research Centre, The University of Hong Kong.Google Scholar
- Byun, S. Y. (2014). Shadow education and academic success in South Korea. In H. Park, & K. K. Kim (Eds.), Korean education in changing economic and demographic contexts. Dordrecht: Springer (in press). Downloaded June 11, 2013 from, https://sites.google.com/site/sooyongbyunshomepage/research-2.
- Caritas, Community & Higher Education Service. (2010). Private supplementary tutoring of secondary students: Investigation report. Hong Kong: Caritas. Accessed June 11, 2013, from http://klncc.caritas.org.hk/private/document/644.pdf [in Chinese].
- Chong, D. (2012). Tutoring center sees big profits in reforms. South China Morning Post, 7 May 2012. Accessed June 11, 2013, from http://www.scmp.com/article/1000331/tutoring-centre-sees-big-profits-reforms.
- Creswell, J. W., & Plano Clark, V. (2007). Designing and conducting mixed methods research. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.Google Scholar
- de Castro, B. V., & de Guzman, A. B. (2010). Push and pull factors affecting Filipino students’ shadow education (SE) participation. KEDI Journal of Educational Policy, 7(1), 43–66.Google Scholar
- Ho, E. S. C. (2009a). Understanding shadow education of East Asian societies from an international perspective. Hong Kong: Faculty of Education, The Chinese University of Hong Kong [in Chinese].Google Scholar
- Ho, E. S. C. (2009b). Good performers taking private tutoring is against the nature of learning. Ming Pao Daily, 12 May. Accessed June 11, 2013, from http://happypama.mingpao.com/cfm/study3.cfm?File=20090512/prepd/398sh04a6.txt [in Chinese].
- Ho, E. S. C., & Kwong, W. L. (2008). Shadow education and related services in Macao: The phenomenon and its impact. Hong Kong: Hong Kong Centre for International Student Assessment [in Chinese].Google Scholar
- Hong Kong, Curriculum Development Council. (2006). Senior secondary curriculum guide (Secondary 4-6): Booklet One. Accessed June 11, 2013, from http://cd1.edb.hkedcity.net/cd/cns/sscg_web/html/english/main00.html.
- Hong Kong, Education Bureau. (2012a). Self-financing local programmes. Accessed June 11, 2013, from www.edb.gov.hk/index.aspx?nodeID=225andlangno=1.
- Hong Kong, Education Bureau. (2013). Figures and statistics: secondary education. Accessed June 11, 2013, from http://www.edb.gov.hk/en/about-edb/publications-stat/figures/sec.html.
- Hong Kong, Legislative Council Panel on Education. (2013). 2013 Policy Address: Policy Initiatives of Education Bureau. Legislative Council Paper No. CB(4)318/12-13(01). Accessed June 11, 2013, from http://www.edb.gov.hk/en/about-edb/legco/policy-address/2013_Education.pdf.
- Hong Kong, Census & Statistics Department. (2005). Latest 2004/05-based Consumer Price Indices. Accessed June 11, 2013, from http://www.censtatd.gov.hk/FileManager/EN/Content_908/cpi_slide.pdf.
- Hong Kong, Education Bureau. (2012). Education Statistics. Hong Kong: Education Bureau.Google Scholar
- Hong Kong, Information Services Department. (2012). Hong Kong: The facts—education. Accessed June 11, 2013, from http://www.gov.hk/en/about/abouthk/factsheets/docs/education.pdf.
- Jang, S. H. (2011). The effects of after-school programs on students’ assessment and shadow education expenditures. PhD Dissertation, Educational Administration Department, Seoul National University.Google Scholar
- Kang, C. (2009). Does money matter? The effect of private education expenditures on academic performance in the Republic of Korea. In F. Barrera-Osorio, H. A. Patrinos, & Q. Wodon (Eds.), Emerging evidence on vouchers and faith-based providers in education: Case studies from Africa, Latin America, and Asia (pp. 151–164). Washington, DC: The World Bank.Google Scholar
- Khandker, S. R., Koolwal, G. B., & Samad, H. A. (2010). Handbook on impact evaluation: Quantitative methods and practices. Washington, DC: The World Bank.Google Scholar
- Kwo, O., & Bray, M. (2011). Facing the shadow education system in Hong Kong. IIAS Newsletter (University of Leiden, International Institute for Asian Studies), 56, 20. Accessed June 11, 2013, from, http://old.iias.asia/article/facing-shadow-education-system-hong-kong.
- Lee, C. (1996). Children and private tuition (Youth Poll Series No. 34). Hong Kong: Hong Kong Federation of Youth Groups.Google Scholar
- Lee, C. J., Park, H. J., & Lee, H. (2009). Shadow education systems. In G. Sykes, B. Schneider, & D. N. Plank (Eds.), Handbook of education policy research (pp. 901–919). New York: Routledge for the American Educational Research Association.Google Scholar
- Lei, W. P. (2005). Expenditures of private supplementary tutoring by high school students: Influential factors and policy implications. Education and Economics (Wuhan), 1, 39–42. [in Chinese].Google Scholar
- Luk, H. K. B. (2003). From under banyan trees to in front of computers: Stories of education in Hong Kong. Hong Kong: Step Forward Multi Media Co. [in Chinese].Google Scholar
- Marimuthu, T., Singh, J. S., Ahmad, K., Lim, H. K., Mukherjee, H., Osman, S., et al. (1991). Extra-school instruction, social equity and educational quality [in Malaysia]. Singapore: International Development Research Centre.Google Scholar
- Modern Education Group Limited. (2011). Global Offering. [Prospectus for offer of shares on Hong Kong Stock Exchange]. Hong Kong: Modern Education Group Limited.Google Scholar
- Ngai, A., Chan, S. C., & Cheung, S. (2013). Private tutoring of primary and secondary school students in Hong Kong. Hong Kong: Hong Kong Federation of Youth Groups.Google Scholar
- Snijders, T. A. B., & Bosker, R. J. (1999). Multilevel analysis: An introduction to basic and advanced multilevel modeling. London: SAGE.Google Scholar
- Sohn, H., Lee, D., Jang, S., & Kim, T. K. (2010). Longitudinal relationship among private tutoring, student–parent conversation, and student achievement. KEDI Journal of Educational Policy, 7(1), 23–41.Google Scholar
- Song, K. O., Park, H. J., & Song, K. A. (2013). A cross-national analysis of the student- and school-level factors affecting the demand for private tutoring. Asia Pacific Education Review. doi: 10.1007/s12564-012-9236-7 (in press).
- Synovate. (2011). Market landscape for private tuitions in Hong Kong and English learning institutes in China. Hong Kong: Synovate.Google Scholar
- Tsuneyoshi, R. (2001). The Japanese model of schooling: Comparisons with the United States. New York: RoutledgeFalmer.Google Scholar
- Xue, H., & Ding, Y. Q. (2009). A positivistic study on the private tutoring of students in urban China. Journal of Youth Studies [Hong Kong], 12(1), 115–128 [in Chinese].Google Scholar