Asia Pacific Education Review

, Volume 14, Issue 2, pp 151–169 | Cite as

How can we assess and evaluate the competitive advantage of a country’s human resource development system?

  • Hunseok Oh
  • Hyue-Hyun Ryu
  • Myungweon Choi


The purpose of this study was to develop an index to assess and evaluate the competitive advantage of a country’s human resource development system. Based on an extensive literature review, a theoretical model of a human resource development system at the national level (named National Human Resource Development: NHRD) was constructed. The model consists of four factors—supply conditions, demand conditions, environment, and supporting systems—and NHRD system competitiveness was measured by the cumulative sum of a country’s achievement in each of these four factors. The four factors were divided into 10 sub-categories, and 45 indicators were selected based on criteria such as relevance, international comparability, reliability, timeliness, and accessibility. Finally, by using the Analytic Hierarchy Process, the individual weights of the 45 indicators were calculated. In addition, the relationships between the NHRD competitiveness scores of OECD member countries and other relevant variables, including GDP per capita and the scores from other national competitiveness studies, were analyzed to examine the validity of the index.


National human resource development National competitiveness Human resource competitiveness Human resource development policy Human resource development system 



This research was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea Grant funded by the Korean Government (NRF 700-20110142). This research modified and validated the conceptual model and indicators of NHRD competitiveness index developed by Oh, et al. (2011). Authors thank to reviewers for invaluable comments for this article.


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Copyright information

© Education Research Institute, Seoul National University, Seoul, Korea 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.College of Education Seoul National UniversitySeoulKorea
  2. 2.Ajou UniversitySuwon-si, Gyeonggi-doKorea

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