Occurrence of tetrodotoxin in three Nassarius gastropod species in Khanh Hoa Province, Vietnam

  • Ha Viet DaoEmail author
  • Ky Xuan Pham
  • Ben Xuan Hoang
  • Masato Tanioka
  • Ryuichi Watanabe
  • Toshiyuki Suzuki
Original Article Food Science and Technology


Neurotoxic poisonings with fatal symptoms caused by consumption of Nassarius gastropods have been reported in Vietnam but the causative toxins have not been confirmed. In the present study, Nassarius conoidalis, N. glans and N. pullus, which are considered to be common causative species, were collected in Khanh Hoa province, Vietnam in May 2016 for toxin analysis using LC/MS/MS. The results confirmed that TTX is a dominant toxin in these gastropods. Among them, N. glans exhibited the highest toxicity (412.7 ± 107.3 MU/g), followed by N. conoidalis (144.8 ± 82.0 MU/g) and N. pullus (19.6 ± 9.8 MU/g). This is the first report confirming TTX in these species. All specimens in this study were hightly toxic, indicating that the frequency of toxic specimens of the three Nassarius species is extremely high. Further, their toxicities were all beyond the regulatory level of consumption (10 MU/g) for puffer(fish) as recommended in Japan. The present data indicates that N. conoidalis, N. glans and N. pullus are not suitable for food in Vietnam.


LC/MS/MS Tetrodotoxin Gastropods Nassarius Vietnam 



This work is the result of the VAST project KHCBBI.02/18-20. The authors would like to give sincere thanks to Japan Funds in Trust (JFIT) for the IOC/WESTPAC-TMO project. The authors would also like to thank Prof. Oshima, Tohoku University, Japan, for providing the PST reference materials, and Mr. Bui Quang Nghi, Oceanographic Museum, Institute of Oceanography, Vietnam, for species identification and photos.

Supplementary material

12562_2019_1375_MOESM1_ESM.docx (174 kb)
Supplementary file1 (DOCX 173 kb)


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Copyright information

© Japanese Society of Fisheries Science 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of OceanographyVietnam Academy of Science and TechnologyNha TrangVietnam
  2. 2.College of Bioresource SciencesNihon UniversityKanagawaJapan
  3. 3.National Research Institute of Fisheries ScienceYokohamaJapan

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