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Effect of dietary fish oil on enhanced inflammation and disturbed lipophagy in white adipose tissue caused by a high fat diet

Abstract

Fish oil containing omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) attenuates chronic inflammation found in obesity, leading to a reduction in insulin resistance. The effect of fish oils containing omega-3 PUFA in the lipophagy pathway is unknown. In the present study, we examined whether omega-3 PUFA affects anti-inflammatory or lipophagy pathways in high fat diet-induced obesity. There was a significant increase in body weight gain in mice fed a high fat diet (HFD) or HFD with fish oil (HFD-FO), but not in mice fed a normal diet (ND). Although there was no significant difference between body weight gain and plasma insulin levels in the HFD and HFD-FO mice, the intake of HFD-FO prevented glucose intolerance and peripheral insulin resistance induced by HFD. In addition, macrophage infiltration and cytokine levels in white adipose tissue (WAT) in HFD-FO mice were decreased, compared with HFD mice. There were no significant differences between lipophagy related proteins and their mRNA levels in the HFD-FO and HFD groups. These results suggest that supplementation with fish oil might be beneficial in preventing insulin resistance caused by a high fat diet through an anti-inflammatory effect, but not lipophagy activation.

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Abbreviations

ADAM8:

A disintegrin-like and metalloproteinase 8

CSA:

Cross-sectional areas

CLS:

Crown-like structures

GPR120:

G protein-coupled protein 120

GTT:

Glucose tolerance test

IL:

Interleukin

ITT:

Insulin tolerance test

LD:

Lipid droplet

MCP-1:

Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1

PLD1:

Phospholipase D1

Plin:

Perilipin

PUFA:

Polyunsaturated fatty acids

TLR:

Toll like receptor

TNF:

Tumor necrosis factor

WAT:

White adipose tissue

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Acknowledgements

This work was supported in part by a Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science, and Technology, Japan, to K.H. (Grant No. 18KT0093).

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Correspondence to Katsuya Hirasaka.

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Saitoh, K., Yoshimura, T., Sun, L. et al. Effect of dietary fish oil on enhanced inflammation and disturbed lipophagy in white adipose tissue caused by a high fat diet. Fish Sci 86, 187–196 (2020) doi:10.1007/s12562-019-01374-4

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Keywords

  • Lipophagy
  • Fish oil
  • Macrophage
  • White adipose tissue