Advertisement

Prevention of hypermelanosis by rearing Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus in net-lined tanks

Abstract

In artificially reared flatfish, especially the Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus, pigmented skin (hypermelanosis) frequently appears on the fish’s blind side after normal metamorphosis. As no practical prevention method has yet been proposed, we examined the effectiveness of a loose net placed inside the rearing tank that covers the bottom and walls like a pouch. When juveniles (standard length [SL] 6 cm) were transferred to the net-lined tank (mesh size 4 mm) before the first appearance of hypermelanosis, the pigmented area after 2 months covered about 0.5% of the blind side; this is about 1/40th of the area covered by pigment in fish reared in an ordinary tank (20%). Although the initial appearance of pigmentation in the axilla area (the area covered by the pectoral fin) was not suppressed, utilization of a larger mesh size (12 mm) decreased the expansion of pigmentation in this area. Juveniles reared in the net-lined tank were about 5–15% smaller (SL) than those reared in the ordinary tank, but their body depth:SL ratio was closer to that of wild-caught juveniles. From the results of this study, we propose that net-lined rearing tanks with larger-sized mesh are a practical method of preventing hypermelanosis in Japanese flounder aquaculture systems.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Access options

Buy single article

Instant unlimited access to the full article PDF.

US$ 39.95

Price includes VAT for USA

Subscribe to journal

Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.

US$ 99

This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8

References

  1. Amiya N, Amano M, Takahashi A, Yamanome T, Kawauchi H, Yamamori K (2005) Effects of tank color on melanin-concentrating hormone levels in the brain, pituitary gland, and plasma of the barfin flounder as revealed by a newly developed time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay. Gen Comp Endocrinol 143:251–256

  2. Haga Y, Takeuchi T, Murayama Y, Ohta K, Fukunaga T (2004) Vitamin D3 compounds induce hypermelanosis on the blind side and vertebral deformity in juvenile Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus. Fish Sci 70:59–67

  3. Isojima T, Makino N, Takakusagi M, Tagawa M (2013a) Progression of staining-type hypermelanosis on the blind side in normally metamorphosed juveniles and pigmentation progression in pseudoalbino juveniles of the Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus using individual identification. Fish Sci 79:787–797

  4. Isojima T, Tsuji H, Masuda R, Tagawa M (2013b) Formation process of staining-type hypermelanosis in Japanese flounder juveniles revealed by examination of chromatophores and scales. Fish Sci 79:231–242

  5. Isojima T, Makino N, Miyama Y, Tagawa M (2014) Effects of time and duration of rearing with bottom sand on the occurrence and expansion of staining-type hypermelanosis in the Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus. Fish Sci 80:785–794

  6. Iwata N, Kikuchi K (1998) Effects of sandy substrate and light on hypermelanosis of the blind side in cultured Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus. Environ Biol Fish 52:291–297

  7. Kaji S, Fukunaga T (1999) Results of a questionnaire on the recent status of seed production and market price of recaptured Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus showing abnormal coloration. Saibai Giken 27:67–101 (in Japanese)

  8. Kanda Y (2013) Investigation of the freely available easy-to-use software “EZR” for medical statistics. Bone Marrow Transplant 48:452–458

  9. Kang DY, Kim HC (2012) Relevance of environmental factors and physiological pigment hormones to blind-side hypermelanosis in the cultured flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus. Aquaculture 356–357:14–21

  10. Kang DY, Kim HC (2013a) Functional characterization of two melanin-concentrating hormone genes in the color camouflage, hypermelanosis, and appetite of starry flounder. Gen Comp Endocrinol 189:74–83

  11. Kang DY, Kim HC (2013b) Influence of density and background color to stress response, appetite, growth, and blind-side hypermelanosis of flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus. Fish Physiol Biochem 39:221–232

  12. Kang DY, Kim HC (2013c) Importance of bottom type and background color for growth and blind-side hypermelanosis of the olive flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus. Aquac Eng 57:1–8

  13. Kang DY, Kim HC (2015) Functional relevance of three proopiomelanocortin (POMC) genes in darkening camouflage, blind-side hypermelanosis, and appetite of Paralichthys olivaceus. Comp Biochem Physiol B 179:44–56

  14. Kawana K, Namba K (2004) Suppression effect of contact stimuli on abnormal body coloration of blind side in Japanese flounder. In: Fukunaga T, Shiozawa S, Tsuzaki T (eds) Induction factors and prevention methods for body color abnormality on the blind side of Japanese flounder. Stock-enhancement technology series 10. Fisheries Research Agency, Tokyo, pp 127–134 (in Japanese)

  15. Matsuda N, Kasagi S, Nakamaru T, Masuda R, Takahashi A, Tagawa M (2005) Left–right pigmentation pattern of Japanese flounder corresponds to expression levels of melanocortin receptors (MC1R and MC5R), but not to agouti signaling protein 1 (ASIP1) expression. Gen Comp Endocrinol 262:90–98

  16. Matsuda N, Yamamoto I, Masuda R, Tagawa M (2018) Cortisol promotes staining-type hypermelanosis in juvenile Japanese flounder. Aquaculture 497:147–154

  17. Nakamura M, Seikai T, Aritaki M, Masuda R, Tanaka M, Tagawa M (2010) Dual appearance of xanthophores, and ontogenetic changes in other pigment cells during early development of Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus. Fish Sci 76:243–250

  18. Nakata K, Yamamoto I, Miyama Y, Nakamaru T, Masuda R, Tagawa M (2017) Undulated flooring in the rearing tank decreases hypermelanosis in Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus. Fish Sci 83:1027–1035

  19. Nihira A (1990) Difference between ratio of body depth to total length of wild flounders and artificial ones. Bull Fish Exp St Ibaraki-Ken 28:113–115 (in Japanese)

  20. R Core Team (2014) R: a language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria. https://www.R-project.org/. Accessed June 2017

  21. Seikai T (1999) nfluences of fluorescent light irradiation, ocular side pigmentation, and source of fishes on the blind side pigmentation in the young Japanese flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus. Aquac Sci 39:173–180 (in Japanese with English abstract)

  22. Seikai T, Matsumoto J, Shinozaki M, Oikawa A, Akiyama T (1987) An association of melanophores appearing at metamorphosis as vehicles of asymmetric skin color formation with pigment anomalies developed under hatchery conditions in the Japanese flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus. Pigment Cell Res 1:143–151

  23. Tarui F, Haga Y, Ohta K, Shima Y, Takeuchi T (2006) Effect of Artemia nauplii enriched with vitamin A palmitate on hypermelanosis on the blind side in juvenile Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus. Fish Sci 72:256–262

  24. Yamanome T, Amano M, Amiya N, Takahashi A (2007) Hypermelanosis on the blind side of Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus is diminished by rearing in a white tank. Fish Sci 73:466–468

  25. Yamanome T, Amano M, Takahashi A (2005) White background reduces the occurrence of staining, activates melanin-concentrating hormone and promotes somatic growth in barfin flounder. Aquaculture 244:323–329

  26. Yamanome T, Chiba H, Takahashi A (2007) Melanocyte-stimulating hormone facilitates hypermelanosis on the non-eyed side of the barfin flounder, a pleuronectiform fish. Aquaculture 270:505–511

  27. Yoshimura K, Kawashita M (2003) Comparison of body proportions and meristic characters between hatchery-reared and wild Japanese flounder juveniles. Sci Rep Hokkaido Fish Exp Stn 64:105–111 (in Japanese with English abstract)

Download references

Acknowledgements

We would like to thank Ootawa Shubyo, Saikai, Nagasaki, and Futtsu Laboratory, Institute of Seed Production, Chiba Prefectural Fisheries Research Center, for kindly providing juvenile Japanese flounder. We would also like to thank the members of the Laboratory of Marine Stock-Enhancement Biology and Maizuru Fisheries Research Station, Kyoto University, for their invaluable discussions and encouragement throughout the course of the study. This work was supported by JSPS KAKENHI Grant number 15K07575 to M.T.

Author information

Correspondence to Masatomo Tagawa.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Mizutani, K., Yamada, T., Suzuki, K.W. et al. Prevention of hypermelanosis by rearing Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus in net-lined tanks. Fish Sci 86, 127–136 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12562-019-01369-1

Download citation

Keywords

  • Abnormal skin color
  • Net-lined rearing tank
  • Flatfish aquaculture
  • Pleuronectiformes
  • Axilla darkening
  • Larger mesh size