Fisheries Science

, Volume 85, Issue 5, pp 821–828 | Cite as

Fertilization, survival and growth of hybrids between Crassostrea gigas and Crassostrea sikamea

  • Hongqiang Xu
  • Qi LiEmail author
  • Lingfeng Kong
  • Hong Yu
  • Shikai Liu
Original Article Aquaculture


Crossbreeding is a powerful tool for animal breeding and genetic improvement in aquaculture. In this work, artificial interspecific hybridization was carried out and three crosses were successfully produced, namely Crassostrea gigas (GG), C. sikamea (SS) and C. sikamea ♀ × C. gigas ♂ (SG), although C. gigas ♀ × C. sikamea ♂ formed nonviable hybrid offspring. The fertilization and hatching success of the SG cross was at an acceptable level compared with that of the intraspecific crosses. At the larval stage, the growth rate of the SG cross corresponded to that of the SS cross, but was significantly lower than the GG cross, and the survival rate of the SG cross did not differ from that of either parental cross. During the spat stage, the single-parent heterosis value of the growth rate for the SG cross ranged from 8.85 to 24.43%. Considering survival rates, notable mid-parent heterosis (27.16–76.00%) and clear single-parent heterosis (30.53–73.28%) were observed, though no significant differences were observed among the three crosses. Our results clearly demonstrate that the production performance of the hybrid SG cross is comparable to that of the maternal parental SS cross. The high survival advantage and single-parent heterosis for the growth trait observed in the SG cross provides a promising method for the genetic improvement of oysters.


Crassostrea gigas Crassostrea sikamea Heterosis Hybridization Phenotypic trait 



This work was supported by grants from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (31772843), Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (201762014), Taishan Scholars Seed Project of Shandong, and Industrial Development Project of Qingdao City (17-3-3-64-nsh).


  1. Allen SK, Gaffney PM (1993) Genetic confirmation of hybridization between Crassostrea gigas (Thunberg) and Crassostrea rivularis (Gould). Aquaculture 113:291–300CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Allen SK, Gaffney PM, Scarpa J, Bushek D (1993) Inviable hybrids of Crassostrea virginica (Gmelin) with C. rivularis (Gould) and C. gigas (Thunberg). Aquaculture 113:269–289CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Banks MA, McGoldrick DJ, Borgeson W, Hedgecock D (1994) Gametic incompatibility and genetic divergence of Pacific and Kumamoto oysters, Crassostrea gigas and C. sikamea. Mar Biol 121:127–135CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bartley DM, Rana K, Immink AJ (2001) The use of inter-specific hybrid in aquaculture and fisheries. Rev Fish Biol Fisher 10:325–337CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bushek D, Kornbluh A, Wang H, Guo X, Debrosse G, Quinlan J (2008) Fertilization interference between Crassostrea ariakensis and Crassostrea virginica: a gamete sink? J Shellfish Res 27:593–600CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Camara MD, Davis JP, Sekino M, Hedgecock D, Li G, Langdon CJ, Evans S (2008) The Kumamoto oyster Crassostrea sikamea is neither rare nor threatened by hybridization in the Northern Ariake Sea, Japan. J Shellfish Res 27:313–322CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Cruz P, Ibarra AM (1997) Larval growth and survival of two catarina scallop (Argopecten circularis, Sowerby, 1835) populations and their reciprocal crosses. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 212:95–110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Dégremont L, Bédier E, Soletchnik P, Ropert M, Huvet A, Moal J, Samain JF, Boudry P (2005) Relative importance of family, site, and field placement timing on survival, growth, and yield of hatchery-produced Pacific oyster spat (Crassostrea gigas). Aquaculture 249:213–229CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Dégremont L, Bédier E, Boudry P (2010) Summer mortality of hatchery-produced Pacific oyster spat (Crassostrea gigas). II. Response to selection for survival and its influence on growth and yield. Aquaculture 299:21–29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. FAO (2007) Assessment of freshwater fish seed resources for sustainable aquaculture. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper, RomeGoogle Scholar
  11. Hamaguchi M, Shimabukuro H, Kawane M, Hamaguchi T (2013) A new record of the Kumamoto oyster Crassostrea sikamea in the Seto Inland Sea, Japan. Mar Bio Record 6:6–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Heath WA (1995) Developments in shellfish culture in British Columbia. J. Shellfish Res 14:228Google Scholar
  13. Hedgecock D, Davis JP (2007) Heterosis for yield and crossbreeding of the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas. Aquaculture 272:17–29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Hedgecock D, Li G, Banks MA, Kain Z (1999) Occurrence of the Kumamoto oyster Crassostrea sikamea in the Ariake Sea, Japan. Mar Biol 133:65–68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Hong JS, Sekino M, Sato S (2012) Molecular species diagnosis confirmed the occurrence of Kumamoto oyster Crassostrea sikamea in Korean waters. Fish Sci 78:259–267CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Huo Z, Wang Z, Yan X, Gaffney PM (2013) Fertilization, survival, and growth of Crassostrea hongkongensis ♀ × Crassostrea ariakensis ♂ hybrids in northern China. J Shellfish Res 32:377–385CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Lafarga de la Cruz F, Gallardo-Escárate C (2011) Intraspecies and interspecies hybrids in Haliotis: natural and experimental evidence and its impact on abalone aquaculture. Rev Aquac 3:74–99CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Le DV, Young T, Alfaro AC, Ragg NLC, Hilton Z, Watts E, King N (2018) Practical fertilization procedure and embryonic development of the New Zealand geoduck clam (Panopea zelandica). J Mar Biol Assoc UK. Google Scholar
  19. Li Q, Wang Q, Liu S, Kong L (2011) Selection response and realized heritability for growth in three stocks of the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas. Fish Sci 77:643–648CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Moy GW, Vacquier VD (2008) Bindin genes of the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas. Gene 423:215–220CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Rawson P, Feindel S (2012) Growth and survival for genetically improved lines of Eastern oysters (Crassostrea virginica) and interline hybrids in Maine, USA. Aquaculture 326:61–67CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Rawson PD, Slaughter C, Yund PO (2003) Patterns of gamete incompatibility between the blue mussels Mytilus edulis and M. trossulus. Mar Biol 143:317–325CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Sheridan AK (1997) Genetic improvement of oyster production—a critique. Aquaculture 153:165–179CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Slaughter C, Mccartney MA, Yund PO (2008) Comparison of gamete compatibility between two blue mussel species in sympatry and in allopatry. Biol Bull 214:57–66CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Soletchnik P, Huvet A, Le Moine O, Razet D, Geairon P, Faury N, Philippe G, Boudry P (2002) A comparative field study of growth, survival and reproduction of Crassostrea gigas, C. angulata and their hybrids. Aquat Living Resour 15:243–250CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Sun S, Wu Y, Lin X, Wang J, Yu J, Sun Y, Miao Y, Li Q, Sanguinet KA, Liu B (2017) Hybrid weakness in a rice interspecific hybrid is nitrogen-dependent, and accompanied by changes in gene expression at both total transcript level and parental allele partitioning. PLoS One 12:e0172919CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Wang H, Guo X (2008a) Identification of Crassostrea ariakensis and related oysters by multiplex species-specific PCR. J Shellfish Res 27:481–487CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Wang Y, Guo X (2008b) ITS length polymorphism in oysters and its use in species identification. J Shellfish Res 27:489–493CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Wang H, Guo X, Zhang G, Zhang F (2004) Classification of jinjiang oysters Crassostrea rivularis (Gould, 1861) from China, based on morphology and phylogenetic analysis. Aquaculture 242:137–155CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Wang Q, Li Q, Kong L, Yu R (2012) Response to selection for fast growth in the second generation of Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas). J Ocean Univ China 11:413–418CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Wang H, Qian L, Wang A, Guo X (2013) Occurrence and distribution of Crassostrea sikamea (Amemiya 1928) in China. J Shellfish Res 32:439–446CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Wang C, Liu B, Liu X, Ma B, Zhao Y, Zhao X, Liu F, Liu G (2017) Selection of a new scallop strain, the Bohai Red, from the hybrid between the bay scallop and the Peruvian scallop. Aquaculture 479:250–255CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Wu Q, Xu F, Bao Y, Li L, Zhang G (2011) Bindin gene from the Kumamoto oyster Crassostrea sikamea, and divergence of the fucose lectin repeats of bindin among three species of Crassostrea. J Shellfish Res 30:55–64CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Xu F, Zhang G, Lio X, Zhang S, Shi B, Guo X (2009) Laboratory hybridization between Crassostrea ariakensis and C. Sikamea. J Shellfish Res 28:453–458CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. You W, Guo Q, Fan F, Ren P, Luo X, Ke C (2015) Experimental hybridization and genetic identification of Pacific abalone Haliotis discus hannai and green abalone H. fulgens. Aquaculture 448:243–249CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Yurchenko OV, Kalachev AV (2016) Is gamete morphology involved in hybridization in oysters? Mar Biol 163:1–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Zhang Y, Wang Z, Yan X, Yu R, Kong J, Liu J, Li X, Li Y, Guo X (2012) Laboratory hybridization between two oysters: crassostrea gigas and Crassostrea hongkongensis. J Shellfish Res 31:619–625CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Zhang Y, Su J, Li J, Zhang Y, Xiao S, Yu Z (2016a) Survival and growth of reciprocal crosses between two stocks of the Hong Kong oyster Crassostrea hongkongensis (Lam & Morton, 2003) in southern China. Aquac Res 48:1–11Google Scholar
  39. Zhang Y, Zhang Y, Jun L, Wang Z, Yan X, Yu Z (2016b) Phenotypic trait of Crassostrea hongkongensis ♀ × C. angulata ♂ hybrids in southern China. Aquac Res 47:3399–3409CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Zhang Y, Zhang Y, Li J, Xiao S, Xiang Z, Wang Z, Yan X, Yu Z (2016c) Artificial interspecific backcrosses between the hybrid of female Crassostrea hongkongensis × male C. gigas and the two parental species. Aquaculture 450:95–101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Zhang Y, Li J, Zhang Y, Ma H, Xiao S, Xiang Z, Yu Z (2017) Performance evaluation of reciprocal hybrids derived from the two brackish oysters, Crassostrea hongkongensis and Crassostrea sikamea in southern China. Aquaculture 473:310–316CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Japanese Society of Fisheries Science 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hongqiang Xu
    • 1
  • Qi Li
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Lingfeng Kong
    • 1
  • Hong Yu
    • 1
  • Shikai Liu
    • 1
  1. 1.Key Laboratory of Mariculture, Ministry of EducationOcean University of ChinaQingdaoChina
  2. 2.Laboratory for Marine Fisheries Science and Food Production ProcessesQingdao National Laboratory for Marine Science and TechnologyQingdaoChina

Personalised recommendations