Advertisement

A new liquid-type diet for leptocephali in mass production of artificial glass eels

  • Yoshiaki YamadaEmail author
  • Akihiro Okamura
  • Naomi Mikawa
  • Noriyuki Horie
  • Katsumi Tsukamoto
Original Article Aquaculture

Abstract

Development of artificial production of glass eels still presents many problems to be solved. What and how to feed larvae is one of the most crucial problems for commercial mass production of glass eels. We evaluated a new liquid-type diet and feeding method against the conventional slurry-type diet by comparing the growth and survival of larvae in triplicate for 27 days after hatching. Larvae were fed by immersion in a liquid-type diet that was a 1.5 times dilution of the conventional slurry-type diet based on dogfish yolk spread over the bottom of the rearing tank. Larvae took more and denser liquid-type food in the intestine than the conventional slurry-type diet. Survival rates at 3 weeks after first feeding were about 90% in most experimental groups (5 groups) except one of three slurry-type diet groups (about 70%). Growth rates were 1.35 times higher in liquid-type diet groups (0.27 mm/day at 27 dph) than in conventional slurry-type diet groups (0.20 mm/day). These results suggest that the immersion feeding method in conjunction with the liquid-type diet has the potential to enable large scale production of glass eels by ensuring high growth and survival.

Keywords

Anguilla japonica Rearing method Diet viscosity Aquaculture Larval food Leptocephalus 

Notes

Acknowledgements

MJ Miller helped to improve the manuscript. This study was partially supported by the research fund from Toyo Suisan Kaisha, Ltd. and JSPS KAKENHI Grant Number JP26450268, 26252030, 17K19300 to KT.

Supplementary material

12562_2019_1295_MOESM1_ESM.mpg (6.3 mb)
MOESM1_ESM.mpg (mpg 6429 KB)

References

  1. Alldredge AL, Silver MW (1988) Characteristics, dynamics and significance of marine snow. Progr Oceanogr 20:41–82CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Fukuda N, Kurogi H, Ambe D, Chow S, Yamamoto T, Yokouchi K, Shinoda A, Masuda Y, Sekino M, Saitoh K, Masujima M, Watanabe T, Mochioka N, Kuwada H (2018) Location, size and age at onset of metamorphosis in the Japanese eel Anguilla japonica. J Fish Biol 92:1342–1358CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Furuita H, Murashita K, Matsunari H, Yamamoto T, Nagao J, Nomura K, Tanaka H (2014) Decreasing dietary lipids improves larval survival and growth of Japanese eel Anguilla japonica. Fish Sci 80:581–587CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Horie N, Utoh T, Mikawa N, Yamada Y, Okamura A, Tanaka S, Tsukamoto K (2008) Influence of artificial fertilization methods of the hormone-treated Japanese eel Anguilla japonica upon the quality of eggs and larvae (comparison between stripping-insemination and spontaneous spawning methods). Nippon Suisan Gakkaishi 74:26–35 (in Japanese with English abstract) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Hulet WH (1978) Structure and functional development of the eel leptocephalus Ariosoma balearicum (Delaroche, 1809). Phil Trans R Soc Lond B 282:107–138CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Ishikawa S, Suzuki K, Inagaki T, Watanabe S, Kimura Y, Okamura A, Otake T, Mochioka N, Suzuki Y, Hasumoto H, Oya M, Miller MJ, Lee TW, Fricke H, Tsukamoto K (2001) Spawning time and place of the Japanese eel, Anguilla japonica, in the North Equatorial Current of the western North Pacific Ocean. Fish Sci 67:1097–1103CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Jacoby DMP, Casselman JM, Crook V, DeLucia M-B, Ahn H, Kaifu K, Kurwie T, Sasal P, Silfvergrip AMC, Smith KG, Uchida K, Walker AM, Gollock MJ (2015) Synergistic patterns of threat and the challenges facing global anguillid eel conservation. Glob Ecol Conserv 4:321–333CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Masuda Y, Oku H, Nomura K, Teruya K, Tanaka H (2010) A colloid-type diet can be ingested by larvae of the Japanese eel Anguilla japonica. J Fish Technol 2:99–104 (in Japanese with English abstract) Google Scholar
  9. Masuda Y, Imaizumi H, Hashimoto H, Oda K, Furuita H, Matsunari H, Teruya K, Usuki H (2011) Eggs of the tiger shark Galeocerdo cuvier or gulper shark Centrophorus atromarginatus as food for early-stage larvae of the Japanese eel Anguilla japonica. J Fish Technol 4:7–13 (in Japanese with English abstract) Google Scholar
  10. Masuda Y, Jinbo T, Imaizumi H, Furuita H, Matsunari H, Murashita K, Fujimoto H, Nagao J, Kawakami Y (2013a) A step forward in development of fish protein hydrolysate-based diets for larvae of Japanese eel Anguilla japonica. Fish Sci 79:681–688CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Masuda Y, Jinbo T, Imaizumi H, Hashimoto H, Oda K, Matsuda K, Teruya K, Usuki H (2013b) Regulation of water temperature, feeding frequency and larval stocking density leads to shorter duration of larval stage of Japanese eel Anguilla japonica. Nippon Suisan Gakkaishi 79:198–205 (in Japanese with English abstract) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Miller MJ, Otake T, Aoyama J, Wouthuyzen S, Suharti S, Sugeha HY, Tsukamoto K (2011) Observations of gut contents of leptocephali in the North Equatorial Current and Tomini Bay, Indonesia. Coast Mar Sci 35:277–288Google Scholar
  13. Miller MJ, Chikaraishi Y, Ogawa NO, Yamada Y, Tsukamoto K, Ohkouchi N (2012) A low trophic position of Japanese eel larvae indicates feeding on marine snow. Biol Lett.  https://doi.org/10.1098/rsbl.2012.0826 Google Scholar
  14. Mochioka N, Iwamizu M (1996) Diet of anguillid larvae: leptocephali feed selectively on larvacean houses and fecal pellets. Mar Biol 125:447–452Google Scholar
  15. Okamura A, Yamada Y, Mikawa N, Horie N, Utoh T, Kaneko T, Tanaka S, Tsukamoto K (2009) Growth and survival of eel leptocephali (Anguilla japonica) in low-salinity water. Aquaculture 296:367–372CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Okamura A, Yamada Y, Horie N, Mikawa N, Tanaka S, Kobayashi H, Tsukamoto K (2013) Hen egg yolk and skinned krill as possible foods for rearing leptocephalus larvae of Anguilla japonica Temminck & Schlegel. Aquacult Res 44:1531–1538CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Okamura A, Horie N, Mikawa N, Yamada Y, Tsukamoto K (2014) Recent advances in artificial production of glass eels for conservation of anguillid eel populations. Ecol Freshw Fish 23:95–110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Okamura A, Horie N, Mikawa N, Yamada Y, Tsukamoto K (2018) Influence of temperature and feeding regimes on growth and notochord deformity in reared Anguilla japonica leptocephali. Fish Sci 84:505–512CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Otake T, Nogami K, Maruyama K (1993) Dissolved and particulate organic matter as possible food sources for eel leptocephali. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 92:27–34CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. OtakeT Hirokawa J, Fujimoto H, Imaizumi K (1995) Fine structure and function of the gut epithelium of pike eel larvae. J Fish Biol 47:126–142CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Pfeiler E (1986) Towards an explanation of the developmental strategy in leptocephalus larvae of marine fishes. Environ Biol Fishes 15:3–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Tachiki H, Nakagawa T (1993) Induction of spawning in female cultured eel Anguilla japonica. Bull Aichi Fish Res Inst 1:79–83 (in Japanese) Google Scholar
  23. Tanaka H (2015) Progression in artificial seedling production of Japanese eel Anguilla japonica. Fish Sci 81:11–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Tanaka H, Kagawa H, Ohta H (2001) Production of leptocephali of Japanese eel (Anguilla japonica) in captivity. Aquaculture 201:51–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Tanaka H, Kagawa H, Ohta H, Unuma T, Nomura K (2003) The first production of glass eel in captivity: fish reproductive physiology facilitates great progress in aquaculture. Fish Physiol Biochem 28:493–497CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Tomoda T, Kurogi H, Okauchi M, Kamoshida M, Imaizumi H, Jinbo T, Nomura K, Furuita H, Tanaka H (2015) Hatchery-reared Japanese eel Anguilla japonica larvae ingest various organic matters formed part of marine snow. Nippon Suisan Gakkaishi 81:715–721 (in Japanese with English abstract) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Tomoda T, Chow S, Kurogi H, Okazaki M, Ambe D, Furuita H, Matsunari H, Nagai S, Yokouchi K, Sawayama S, Nomura K, Tanaka H, Sudou R, Hasegawa D, Inaba N (2018) Observations of gut contents of anguilliform leptocephali collected in the western North Pacific. Nippon Suisan Gakkaishi 84:34–44 (in Japanese with English abstract) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Yamada Y, Okamura A, Mikawa N, Utoh T, Horie N, Tanaka S, Miller MJ, Tsukamoto K (2009) Ontogenetic changes in phototactic behavior during metamorphosis of artificially reared Japanese eel Anguilla japonica larvae. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 379:241–251CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Yoshimatsu T (2011) Early development of preleptocephalus larvae of the Japanese eel in captivity with special reference to the organs for larval feeding. Bull Grad Sch Bioresour Mie Univ 37:11–18Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Japanese Society of Fisheries Science 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.IRAGO Institute Co. Ltd.TaharaJapan
  2. 2.Department of Aquatic Bioscience, Graduate School of Agricultural and Life SciencesThe University of TokyoTokyoJapan

Personalised recommendations