Effects of Euphorbia hirta plant leaf extract on growth performance, hematological and organosomatic indices of hybrid catfish, Clarias macrocephalus × C. gariepinus
This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of Euphorbia hirta leaf extract on the growth performance, hematological and organosomatic indices of hybrid catfish, Clarias macrocephalus × C. gariepinus. The fish were treated with 0 (control), 300, 500 and 800 mg/kg (ppm) for 90 days. The weight gain, average daily growth rate, and specific growth rate were at significantly higher levels in fish from all the treatment groups on days 75 and 90, while the feed efficiency and protein efficiency ratio were consistently higher in fish from all the treatment groups from day 60 up until day 90. The feed conversion rate significantly decreased from day 60 until day 90 in all treatment groups when compared with the control group, and the survival rate was significantly different from day 30 until day 90; a consistently higher rate was observed in fish fed 800 mg/kg. The highest viscerosomatic index and intraperitoneal fat were observed in the group fed 500 mg/kg (p < 0.05). The hepatosomatic index was significantly increased alongside increasing levels of E. hirta extract. The total white blood cell count in the control group was significantly higher on day 30, but on day 90 all the treatment groups showed higher levels. Hematocrit percentage was significantly different on days 30 and 90. Lymphocyte, eosinophil and thrombocyte levels were shown to be significantly different (p < 0.05) when different groups of fish were compared. In conclusion, 300 mg/kg of E. hirta leaf extract could improve growth performance, hematological and some organosomatic indices in hybrid catfish.
KeywordsEuphorbia hirta Growth performance Organosomatic indices Hematology Hybrid catfish
We would like to thank the School of Agriculture and Natural Recourses, University of Phayao, Thailand for providing facilities for the present research. Moreover, the authors would also like to thank all the staff and students in the fisheries program for their help with data collection and herbal fish feed preparation.
The authors declare that there was no funding for the present research.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.
All applicable international, national, and/or institutional guidelines for the care and use of animals were followed.
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