Pharmacokinetics of enrofloxacin and its metabolite ciprofloxacin in Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei after multiple-dose oral administration
The present study was designed to explore pharmacokinetics (PK) of enrofloxacin and its metabolite ciprofloxacin in Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei after multiple-dose oral administration of enrofloxacin (30 mg/kg dose per 12 h and continuous feeding for 3 days). Enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin concentrations in hemolymph, hepatopancreas, and muscle of the shrimp were simultaneously determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. PK parameters were analyzed based on statistical moment theory. Meanwhile, the relationship of pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics (PK/PD) was established based on drug concentration of hemolymph and in vitro antibacterial activity (MIC value). Results showed faster absorption of enrofloxacin in hemolymph (Tmax = 1 h) and muscles (Tmax = 1 h) than that in hepatopancreas (Tmax = 3 h) after the first oral administration. In multiple-dose oral administration, slight accumulation of enrofloxacin occurred in the hemolymph and hepatopancreas, while in the muscle, enrofloxacin concentration showed a significant decline following multiple administration. Tissue distribution of enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin both followed the order hepatopancreas > hemolymph > muscle, with significantly higher ciprofloxacin concentration in hepatopancreas than in hemolymph (approximately 10-fold) and muscles (approximately 50-fold), indicating that the hepatopancreas is the main organ involved in metabolism of enrofloxacin in Pacific white shrimp. After multiple-dose administration, Cmax/MIC and AUC0–24/MIC values showed that the therapeutic regimen in this study could be remarkably effective in prevention and treatment of Vibrio infection in Pacific white shrimp.
KeywordsPacific white shrimp Pharmacokinetics Enrofloxacin Ciprofloxacin Multiple oral administration In vitro efficacy
This study was supported financially by National Key Research and Development Program of China (no. 2017YFC1600704), and Central Public-interest Scientific Institution Basal Research Fund, CAFS (no. 2017HY-ZD1006), and Shanghai Agriculture Applied Technology Development Program of China (no. G20140304).
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Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest concerning this article.
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