Advertisement

Fisheries Science

, Volume 78, Issue 2, pp 359–366 | Cite as

Optimization of the supplemental essential amino acids to a fish meal-free diet based on fermented soybean meal for rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss

  • Takeshi YamamotoEmail author
  • Hiroyuki Matsunari
  • Tsuyoshi Sugita
  • Hirofumi Furuita
  • Toshiro Masumoto
  • Yasuro Iwashita
  • Shunji Amano
  • Nobuhiro Suzuki
Original Article Aquaculture

Abstract

To minimize the supplemental essential amino acids (EAAs) to a fish meal-free diet for rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss, four types of fish meal-free diets and a control fish meal-based diet were fed to triplicate groups of trout (initial BW, 16 g) for 10 weeks. Two fish meal-free diets based on a fermented and an unfermented soybean meal were unsupplemented with EAAs (diet FSBM and SBM), and two fish meal-free diets based on the fermented soybean meal were supplemented with a combination of lysine and methionine (diet F + ML) and all EAAs (diet F + All), the EAA contents of which were lower than those of the control diet (diet FM). Although physiological conditions such as the biliary bile acid status and morphological features of fish fed diet FSBM were improved and similar to those of fish fed diet FM, the growth performance was not significantly different (P > 0.05) from fish fed diet SBM. The growth performances and whole body protein contents of fish fed F + ML and F + All diets were similarly improved compared to fish fed diet FSBM. These findings indicate that supplementation of lysine and methionine to a fermented soybean meal-based fish meal-free diet is enough to maximize the amino acid utilization of the diet.

Keywords

Diet Essential amino acid Fermented soybean meal Lysine Methionine Oncorhynchus mykiss 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This study was financially supported in part by the Fisheries Agency and the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Government of Japan.

References

  1. 1.
    Gatlin DM III, Barrows FD, Brown P, Dabrowski K, Gaylord TG, Hardy RW, Herman E, Hu G, Krogdahl Å, Nelson R, Overturf K, Rust M, Sealey W, Skonberg D, Souza E, Stone D, Wilson R, Wurtele E (2007) Expanding the utilization of sustainable plant products in aquafeeds: a review. Aquac Res 38:551–579CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Akiyama T, Unuma T, Yamamoto T, Marcouli P, Kishi S (1995) Combinational use of malt protein flour and soybean meal as alternative protein sources of fish meal in fingerling rainbow trout diets. Fish Sci 61:828–832Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Yamamoto T, Unuma T, Akiyama T (1995) The effect of combined use of several alternative protein sources in fingerling rainbow trout diets. Fish Sci 61:915–920Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Yamamoto T, Marcouli PA, Unuma T, Akiyama T (1994) Utilization of malt protein flour in fingerling rainbow trout diets. Fish Sci 60:455–460Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Davies SJ, Morris PC (1997) Influence of multiple amino acid supplementation on the performance of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum), fed soya based diets. Aquac Res 28:65–74CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Ketola HG (1982) Amino acid nutrition of fishes: requirements and supplementation of diets. Comp Biochem Physiol 73B:17–24Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Kaushik SJ, Cravedi JP, Lalles JP, Sumpter J, Fauconneau B, Laroche M (1995) Partial or total replacement of fish meal by soybean protein on growth, protein utilization, potential estrogenic or antigenic effects, cholesterolemia and flesh quality in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss. Aquaculture 133:257–274CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Davies SJ, Morris PC, Baker RTM (1997) Partial substitution of fish meal and full-fat soya bean meal with wheat gluten and influence of lysine supplementation in diets for rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum). Aquac Res 28:317–328CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Cheng ZJ, Hardy RW, Usry JL (2003) Effects of lysine supplementation in plant protein-based diets on the performance of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and apparent digestibility coefficients of nutrients. Aquaculture 215:255–265CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Yamamoto T, Shima T, Furuita H, Suzuki N (2002) Influence of feeding diets with and without fish meal by hand and by self-feeders on feed intake, growth and nutrient utilization of juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Aquaculture 214:289–305CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Yamamoto T, Shima T, Furuita H, Suzuki N (2004) Antagonistic effects of branched-chain amino acids induced by excess protein-bound leucine in diets for rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Aquaculture 232:539–550CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Francis G, Makkar HPS, Becker K (2001) Antinutritional factors present in plant-derived alternate fish feed ingredients and their effects in fish. Aquaculture 199:197–227CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Yamamoto T, Iwashita Y, Matsunari H, Sugita T, Furuita H, Akimoto A, Okamatsu K, Suzuki N (2010) Influence of fermentation conditions for soybean meal in a non-fish meal diet on the growth performance and physiological condition of rainbow trout. Aquaculture 309:173–180CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Somogyi M (1952) Notes on sugar determination. J Biol Chem 195:19–23Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Moore S (1963) On the determination of cystine as cysteic acid. J Biol Chem 238:235–237Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Iwata T, Yamasaki K (1964) Enzymatic determination and thin-layer chromatography of bile acids in blood. J Biochem 56:424–431PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Goto T, Ui T, Une M, Kuramoto T, Kihira K, Hoshita S (1996) Bile salt composition and distribution of the d-cysteinolic acid conjugated bile salts in fish. Fish Sci 62:606–609Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Matsunari H, Iwashita Y, Suzuki N, Saito T, Akimoto A, Okamatsu K, Sugita T, Yamamoto T (2010) Influence of fermented soybean meal-based diet on the biliary bile status and intestinal morphology in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. Aquac Sci 58:243–252Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Nguyen HP, Khaoian P, Fukada H, Nakamori T, Furuta H, Masumoto T (2011) Effects of different soybean proteins on lipid digestion and growth of yellowtail Seriola quinqueradiata. Fish Sci 77:357–365CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Yamamoto T, Unuma T, Akiyama T (2000) The influence of dietary protein and fat levels on tissue free amino acid levels of fingerling rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Aquaculture 182:353–372CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Yamamoto T, Unuma T, Akiyama T (2000) The influence of dietary protein sources on tissue free amino acid levels of fingerling rainbow trout. Fish Sci 66:310–320CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Yokoyama M, Nakazoe J (1992) Accumulation and excretion of taurine in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fed diets supplemented with methionine, cystine and taurine. Comp Biochem Physiol 102A:565–568CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Ogata H, Murai T (1994) White muscle of masu salmon, Oncorhynchus masou masou, smolts possesses a strong buffering capacity due to a high level of anserine. Fish Physiol Biochem 13:285–293CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Ogata HY (2002) Muscle buffering capacity of yellowtail fed diets supplemented with crystalline histidine. J Fish Biol 61:1504–1512CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Maruji Y, Shimizu M, Murata M, Ando M, Sakaguchi M, Hirata T (2010) Multiple taste functions of the umami substances in muscle extracts of yellowtail and bastard halibut. Fish Sci 76:521–528CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Endo K, Kishimoto R, Yamamoto Y, Shimizu Y (1974) Seasonal variations in chemical constituents of yellowtail muscle-II. Nitrogenous extractives. Nippon Suisan Gakkaishi 40:67–72 (in Japanese with English abstract)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Suyama M, Shimizu T (1982) Buffering capacity and taste of carnosine and its methylated compounds. Nippon Suisan Gakkaishi 48:89–95 (in Japanese with English abstract)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Yamamoto T, Suzuki N, Furuita H, Sugita T, Tanaka N, Goto T (2007) Supplemental effect of bile salts to soybean meal-based diet on growth and feed utilization of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. Fish Sci 73:123–131CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Japanese Society of Fisheries Science 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Takeshi Yamamoto
    • 1
    Email author
  • Hiroyuki Matsunari
    • 1
  • Tsuyoshi Sugita
    • 1
  • Hirofumi Furuita
    • 1
  • Toshiro Masumoto
    • 2
  • Yasuro Iwashita
    • 1
    • 3
  • Shunji Amano
    • 3
  • Nobuhiro Suzuki
    • 3
  1. 1.Tamaki Station, National Research Institute of AquacultureFisheries Research AgencyTamakiJapan
  2. 2.Laboratory of Fish Nutrition, Faculty of AgricultureKochi UniversityNankokuJapan
  3. 3.Department of Fisheries, School of Marine Science and TechnologyTokai UniversityShimizuJapan

Personalised recommendations