Comparison of the amount of thiotrophic symbionts in the deep-sea mussel Bathymodiolus septemdierum under different sulfide levels using fluorescent in situ hybridization
- 306 Downloads
Various invertebrates inhabiting hydrothermal vents harbor thiotrophic endosymbionts that provide the host with nutrients and are possibly involved in the detoxification of harmful sulfides. In this study, we first determined the partial 16S rRNA gene sequence of the thiotrophic symbiont of the deep-sea mussel Bathymodiolus septemdierum, a dominant species at hydrothermal vents in the Izu–Ogasawara (Bonin) area. We then designed a new probe, Bsob692, for fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) using regions completely conserved among thiotrophic symbionts of all bathymodiolin mussels and established the protocol for FISH to compare the distribution and amount of the symbiont using an image analysis program that is commercially available. We compared fluorescent intensity in the gill of the mussels collected at different sites and found a higher intensity in specimens collected from a site with higher sulfide concentration. We also compared mussels reared in the presence and absence of sulfide and found that the former had a higher fluorescent intensity.
KeywordsChemosynthetic bacteria Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) Hydrothermal vents Sulfide Symbiosis
We thank the crew of R/V Natsushima and ROV Hyper-Dolphin for their help during the cruise NT08-07. We also thank the crew of Tanshu-Maru. This work was supported by KAKENHI (nos. 19380110 and 22380107).
- 2.Van Dover CL (2000) The ecology of deep-sea hydrothermal vents. Princeton University Press, New JerseyGoogle Scholar
- 7.Borowski C, Giere O, Krieger J, Amann R, Dubilier N (2002) New aspects of the symbiosis in the provannid snail Ifremeria nautilei from the North Fiji Back Arc Basin. Cah Biol Mar 43:321–324Google Scholar
- 9.Suzuki Y, Sasaki T, Suzuki M, Nogi Y, Miwa T, Takai K, Nealson KH, Horikoshi K (2005) Novel chemoautotrophic endosymbiosis between a member of the Epsilonproteobacteria and the hydrothermal-vent gastropod Alviniconcha aff. hessleri (Gastropoda: Provannidae) from the Indian Ocean. Appl Environ Microbiol 71:5440–5450PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 12.Bettencourt R, Dando P, Rosa D, Riou V, Colaco A, Sarrazin J, Sarradin PM, Santos RS (2008) Changes of gill and hemocyte- related bio-indicators during long term maintenance of the vent mussel Bathymodiolus azoricus held in aquaria at atmospheric pressure. Comp Biochem Physiol Part A 150:1–7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 13.Duperron S, Nadalig T, Caprais JC, Sibuet M, Fiala-Médioni A, Amann R, Dubilier N (2005) Dual symbiosis in a Bathymodiolus mussel from a methane seep on the Gabon continental margin (South East Atlantic): 16S rRNA phylogeny and distribution of the symbionts in the gills. Appl Environ Microbiol 71:1694–1700PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 14.Duperron S, Bergin C, Zielinski F, Blazejak A, Pernthaler A, McKiness ZP, DeChaine E, Cavanaugh CM, Dubilier N (2006) A dual symbiosis shared by two mussel species, Bathymodiolus azoricus and Bathymodiolus puteoserpentis (Bivalvia: Mytilidae), from hydrothermal vents along the northern Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Environ Microbiol 8:1441–1447PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 19.Koito T, Nakamura-Kusakabe I, Yoshida T, Maruyama T, Omata T, Miyazaki N, Inoue K (2010) The effect of long-term exposure to sulfides on taurine transporter gene expression in the gill of the deep-sea mussel Bathymodiolus platifrons, which harbors a methanotrophic symbiont. Fish Sci 76:381–388CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 20.Koito T, Morimoto S, Toyohara H, Yoshida T, Jimbo M, Maruyama T, Miyazaki N, Inoue K (2010) Decline in taurine transporter mRNA and thioautotrophic bacterial 16S rDNA levels after transplantation of the hydrothermal-vent mussel Bathymodiolus septemdierum to a non-vent position. Cah Biol Mar 51:429–433Google Scholar
- 21.Lane DJ (1991) 16S/23S Sequencing. In: Stackebrandt E, Goodfellow M (eds) Nucleic acid techniques in bacterial systematics. Wiley, Chichester, pp 115–175Google Scholar
- 24.Manz W, Amann R, Ludwig W, Wagner M, Schleifer KH (1992) Phylogenetic oligodeoxynucleotide probes for the major subclasses of Proteobacteria: problems and solutions. Syst Appl Microbiol 15:593–600Google Scholar